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Carola Dahlke, Alexander Loew, and Christian Reick


The fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) is an essential diagnostic variable to investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of the terrestrial biosphere. The present study provides a new method to assess global vegetation greening phase dynamics, derived from fAPAR time series from four different remote sensing products. A robust algorithm is developed to detect intra-annual greening phase patterns and derive seasonality patterns of vegetation dynamics at the global scale. The comparison of four independent remote sensing datasets shows significantly consistent global spatiotemporal patterns at the 95% confidence level. Regions where the remote sensing datasets show consistent results, as well as regions where at least one of the used remote sensing datasets deviates, can be identified. The derived global greening phase dataset and analysis method provides a solid framework for the evaluation of global vegetation models.

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Alexander Loew, Axel Andersson, Jörg Trentmann, and Marc Schröder


Earth system models are indispensable tools in climate studies. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is a coordinated effort of the Earth system modeling community to intercompare existing models. An accurate simulation of surface solar radiation fluxes is of major importance for the accuracy of simulations of the near-surface climate in Earth system models. The present study provides a quantitative assessment of the accuracy and multidecadal changes of surface solar radiation fluxes for model results from two phases of CMIP. The entire archives of phase 5 of CMIP (CMIP5) and its predecessor phase 3 (CMIP3) are analyzed for present-day climate conditions. A relative model ranking is provided, and its uncertainty is quantified using different global observational records. It is shown that the choice of an observational dataset can have a major influence on relative model ranking between CMIP models. However the multidecadal variability of surface solar radiation fluxes, also known as global “dimming” or “brightening,” is largely underestimated by the CMIP models.

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