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  • Author or Editor: Anthony Bucholtz x
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Andrew M. Vogelmann
,
Greg M. McFarquhar
,
John A. Ogren
,
David D. Turner
,
Jennifer M. Comstock
,
Graham Feingold
,
Charles N. Long
,
Haflidi H. Jonsson
,
Anthony Bucholtz
,
Don R. Collins
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Hermann Gerber
,
R. Paul Lawson
,
Roy K. Woods
,
Elisabeth Andrews
,
Hee-Jung Yang
,
J. Christine Chiu
,
Daniel Hartsock
,
John M. Hubbe
,
Chaomei Lo
,
Alexander Marshak
,
Justin W. Monroe
,
Sally A. McFarlane
,
Beat Schmid
,
Jason M. Tomlinson
, and
Tami Toto

A first-of-a-kind, extended-term cloud aircraft campaign was conducted to obtain an in situ statistical characterization of continental boundary layer clouds needed to investigate cloud processes and refine retrieval algorithms. Coordinated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF), the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign operated over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site from 22 January to 30 June 2009, collecting 260 h of data during 59 research flights. A comprehensive payload aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft measured cloud microphysics, solar and thermal radiation, physical aerosol properties, and atmospheric state parameters. Proximity to the SGP's extensive complement of surface measurements provides ancillary data that support modeling studies and facilitates evaluation of a variety of surface retrieval algorithms. The five-month duration enabled sampling a range of conditions associated with the seasonal transition from winter to summer. Although about twothirds of the flights during which clouds were sampled occurred in May and June, boundary layer cloud fields were sampled under a variety of environmental and aerosol conditions, with about 77% of the cloud flights occurring in cumulus and stratocumulus. Preliminary analyses illustrate use of these data to analyze aerosol– cloud relationships, characterize the horizontal variability of cloud radiative impacts, and evaluate surface-based retrievals. We discuss how an extended-term campaign requires a simplified operating paradigm that is different from that used for typical, short-term, intensive aircraft field programs.

Full access
Leila M. V. Carvalho
,
Gert-Jan Duine
,
Craig Clements
,
Stephan F. J. De Wekker
,
Harindra J. S. Fernando
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David R. Fitzjarrald
,
Robert G. Fovell
,
Charles Jones
,
Zhien Wang
,
Loren White
,
Anthony Bucholtz
,
Matthew J. Brewer
,
William Brown
,
Matt Burkhart
,
Edward Creegan
,
Min Deng
,
Marian de Orla-Barile
,
David Emmitt
,
Steve Greco
,
Terry Hock
,
James Kasic
,
Kiera Malarkey
,
Griffin Modjeski
,
Steven Oncley
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Alison Rockwell
,
Daisuke Seto
,
Callum Thompson
, and
Holger Vömel

Abstract

Coastal Santa Barbara is among the most exposed communities to wildfire hazards in Southern California. Downslope, dry, and gusty windstorms are frequently observed on the south-facing slopes of the Santa Ynez Mountains that separate the Pacific Ocean from the Santa Ynez valley. These winds, known as “Sundowners,” peak after sunset and are strong throughout the night and early morning. The Sundowner Winds Experiment (SWEX) was a field campaign funded by the National Science Foundation that took place in Santa Barbara, California, between 1 April and 15 May 2022. It was a collaborative effort of 10 institutions to advance understanding and predictability of Sundowners, while providing rich datasets for developing new theories of downslope windstorms in coastal environments with similar geographic and climatic characteristics. Sundowner spatiotemporal characteristics are controlled by complex interactions among atmospheric processes occurring upstream (Santa Ynez valley), and downstream due to the influence of a cool and stable marine boundary layer. SWEX was designed to enhance spatial measurements to resolve local circulations and vertical structure from the surface to the midtroposphere and from the Santa Barbara Channel to the Santa Ynez valley. This article discusses how SWEX brought cutting-edge science and the strengths of multiple ground-based and mobile instrument platforms to bear on this important problem. Among them are flux towers, mobile and stationary lidars, wind profilers, ceilometers, radiosondes, and an aircraft equipped with three lidars and a dropsonde system. The unique features observed during SWEX using this network of sophisticated instruments are discussed here.

Open access
William L. Smith Jr.
,
Christy Hansen
,
Anthony Bucholtz
,
Bruce E. Anderson
,
Matthew Beckley
,
Joseph G. Corbett
,
Richard I. Cullather
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Keith M. Hines
,
Michelle Hofton
,
Seiji Kato
,
Dan Lubin
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Richard H. Moore
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Michal Segal Rosenhaimer
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Jens Redemann
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Sebastian Schmidt
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Ryan Scott
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Shi Song
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John D. Barrick
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J. Bryan Blair
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David H. Bromwich
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Colleen Brooks
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Gao Chen
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Helen Cornejo
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Chelsea A. Corr
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Seung-Hee Ham
,
A. Scott Kittelman
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Scott Knappmiller
,
Samuel LeBlanc
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Norman G. Loeb
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Colin Miller
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Louis Nguyen
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Rabindra Palikonda
,
David Rabine
,
Elizabeth A. Reid
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Jacqueline A. Richter-Menge
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Peter Pilewskie
,
Yohei Shinozuka
,
Douglas Spangenberg
,
Paul Stackhouse
,
Patrick Taylor
,
K. Lee Thornhill
,
David van Gilst
, and
Edward Winstead

Abstract

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s Arctic Radiation-IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment (ARISE) acquired unique aircraft data on atmospheric radiation and sea ice properties during the critical late summer to autumn sea ice minimum and commencement of refreezing. The C-130 aircraft flew 15 missions over the Beaufort Sea between 4 and 24 September 2014. ARISE deployed a shortwave and longwave broadband radiometer (BBR) system from the Naval Research Laboratory; a Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) from the University of Colorado Boulder; the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) from the NASA Ames Research Center; cloud microprobes from the NASA Langley Research Center; and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) laser altimeter system from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These instruments sampled the radiant energy exchange between clouds and a variety of sea ice scenarios, including prior to and after refreezing began. The most critical and unique aspect of ARISE mission planning was to coordinate the flight tracks with NASA Cloud and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensor observations in such a way that satellite sensor angular dependence models and derived top-of-atmosphere fluxes could be validated against the aircraft data over large gridbox domains of order 100–200 km. This was accomplished over open ocean, over the marginal ice zone (MIZ), and over a region of heavy sea ice concentration, in cloudy and clear skies. ARISE data will be valuable to the community for providing better interpretation of satellite energy budget measurements in the Arctic and for process studies involving ice–cloud–atmosphere energy exchange during the sea ice transition period.

Full access