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Anthony J. Wimmers and Christopher S. Velden

Abstract

Precise center-fixing of tropical cyclones (TCs) is critical for operational forecasting, intensity estimation, and visualization. Current procedures are usually performed with manual input from a human analyst, using multispectral satellite imagery as the primary tools. While adequate in many cases, subjective interpretation can often lead to variance in the estimated center positions. In this paper an objective, robust algorithm is presented for resolving the rotational center of TCs: the Automated Rotational Center Hurricane Eye Retrieval (ARCHER). The algorithm finds the center of rotation using spirally oriented brightness temperature gradients in the TC banding patterns in combination with gradients along the ring-shaped edge of a possible eye. It is calibrated and validated using 85–92-GHz passive microwave imagery because of this frequency’s relative ubiquity in TC applications; however, similar versions of ARCHER are also shown to work effectively with other satellite imagery of TCs. In TC cases with estimated low to moderate vertical wind shear, the accuracy (RMSE) of the ARCHER estimated center positions is 17 km (9 km for category 1–5 hurricanes). In cases with estimated high vertical shear, the accuracy of the ARCHER estimated center positions is 31 km (21 km for category 2–5 hurricanes).

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Anthony J. Wimmers and Christopher S. Velden

Abstract

Conventional methods of viewing and combining retrieved geophysical fields from polar-orbiting satellites often complicate the work of end users because of the erratic time differences between overpasses, the significant time gaps between elements of a composite image, or simply the different requirements for interpretation between contributing instruments. However, it is possible to mitigate these issues for any number of retrieved quantities in which the tracer lifetime exceeds the sampling time. This paper presents a method that uses “advective blending” to create high-fidelity composites of data from polar-orbiting satellites at high temporal resolution, including a characterization of error as a function of time gap between satellite overpasses. The method is especially effective for tracers with lifetimes of longer than 7 h. Examples are presented using microwave-based retrievals of total precipitable water (TPW) over the ocean, from the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) Morphed Integrated Microwave Imagery at CIMSS TPW product (MIMIC-TPW). The mean average error of a global 0.25° × 0.25° product at 1-h resolution is 0.5–2 mm, which is very reasonable for most applications.

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Anthony J. Wimmers and Christopher S. Velden

Abstract

An improved version of the Automated Rotational Center Hurricane Eye Retrieval (ARCHER) tropical cyclone (TC) center-fixing algorithm, introduced here as “ARCHER-2,” is presented with a characterization of its accuracy and precision and a comparison with alternative methods. The algorithm is calibrated for 37- and 85–92-GHz microwave imagers; geostationary imagery at visible, near-infrared, and longwave infrared window channels; and scatterometer ambiguities. In addition to a center fix, ARCHER-2 produces a quantitative estimate of expected error that can be used automatically or manually to evaluate the suitability of a result. The median center-fix error ranges from 24 (using scatterometer) to 49 (using infrared window) km relative to the National Hurricane Center best track. Multisatellite, multisensor results can also be used together to produce a TC-track estimate that selects from the best of all of the available imagery in the ancillary “ARCHER-Track” product. The median error of ARCHER-Track varies between 17 and 38 km, depending on TC intensity and data latency. The bias of the product’s expected error varies between 0% and 12%, which translates to an average of only 4 km. When compared with operational, subjective center-fix estimates, the ARCHER-Track approach improves on 29%–43% of these cases at the tropical-depression and tropical-storm stages, at which further assistance is typically sought. This result demonstrates that ARCHER-2 and ARCHER-Track can complement and accelerate operational forecasting where needed and can furnish other automated TC-analysis methods with well-characterized center-fix information.

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