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Anthony J. Wimmers and Christopher S. Velden

Satellite-based passive microwave imagery of tropical cyclones (TCs) is an invaluable resource for assessing the organization and evolution of convective structures in TCs when often no other comparable observations exist. However, the current constellation of low-Earth-orbiting environmental satellites that can effectively image TCs in the microwave range make only semirandom passes over TC targets, roughly every 3 - 6 h, but vary from less than 30 min to more than 25 h between passes. These irregular time gaps hamper the ability of analysts/forecasters to easily incorporate these data into a diagnosis of the state of the TC. To address this issue, we have developed a family of algorithms called Morphed Integrated Microwave Imagery at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (MIMIC) to create synthetic “morphed” images that utilize the observed imagery to fill in the time gaps and present time-continuous animations of tropical cyclones and their environment. MIMIC-TC is a product that presents a storm-centered 15-min-resolution animation of microwave imagery in the ice-scattering range (85–92 GHz), which can be interpreted very much like a ground-based radar animation. A second product, MIMIC-IR, animates a tropical cyclone-retrieved precipitation field layered over geostationary infrared imagery. These tools allow forecasters and analysts to use microwave imagery to follow trends in a tropical cyclone's structure more efficiently and effectively, which can result in higher-confidence short-term intensity forecasts.

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John R. Mecikalski, Wayne F. Feltz, John J. Murray, David B. Johnson, Kristopher M. Bedka, Sarah T. Bedka, Anthony J. Wimmers, Michael Pavolonis, Todd A. Berendes, Julie Haggerty, Pat Minnis, Ben Bernstein, and Earle Williams

Advanced Satellite Aviation Weather Products (ASAP) was jointly initiated by the NASA Applied Sciences Program and the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program in 2002. The initiative provides a valuable bridge for transitioning new and existing satellite information and products into Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation Weather Research Program (AWRP) efforts to increase the safety and efficiency of project addresses hazards such as convective weather, turbulence (clear air and cloud induced), icing, and volcanic ash, and is particularly applicable in extending the monitoring of weather over data-sparse areas, such as the oceans and other observationally remote locations.

ASAP research is conducted by scientists from NASA, the FAA AWRP's Product Development Teams (PDT), NOAA, and the academic research community. In this paper we provide a summary of activities since the inception of ASAP that emphasize the use of current-generation satellite technologies toward observing and mitigating specified aviation hazards. A brief overview of future ASAP goals is also provided in light of the next generation of satellite sensors (e.g., hyperspectral; high spatial resolution) to become operational in the 2007–18 time frame.

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Svetla M. Hristova-Veleva, P. Peggy Li, Brian Knosp, Quoc Vu, F. Joseph Turk, William L. Poulsen, Ziad Haddad, Bjorn Lambrigtsen, Bryan W. Stiles, Tsae-Pyng Shen, Noppasin Niamsuwan, Simone Tanelli, Ousmane Sy, Eun-Kyoung Seo, Hui Su, Deborah G. Vane, Yi Chao, Philip S. Callahan, R. Scott Dunbar, Michael Montgomery, Mark Boothe, Vijay Tallapragada, Samuel Trahan, Anthony J. Wimmers, Robert Holz, Jeffrey S. Reid, Frank Marks, Tomislava Vukicevic, Saiprasanth Bhalachandran, Hua Leighton, Sundararaman Gopalakrishnan, Andres Navarro, and Francisco J. Tapiador

Abstract

Tropical cyclones (TCs) are among the most destructive natural phenomena with huge societal and economic impact. They form and evolve as the result of complex multiscale processes and nonlinear interactions. Even today the understanding and modeling of these processes is still lacking. A major goal of NASA is to bring the wealth of satellite and airborne observations to bear on addressing the unresolved scientific questions and improving our forecast models. Despite their significant amount, these observations are still underutilized in hurricane research and operations due to the complexity associated with finding and bringing together semicoincident and semicontemporaneous multiparameter data that are needed to describe the multiscale TC processes. Such data are traditionally archived in different formats, with different spatiotemporal resolution, across multiple databases, and hosted by various agencies. To address this shortcoming, NASA supported the development of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS)—a data analytic framework that integrates model forecasts with multiparameter satellite and airborne observations, providing interactive visualization and online analysis tools. TCIS supports interrogation of a large number of atmospheric and ocean variables, allowing for quick investigation of the structure of the tropical storms and their environments. This paper provides an overview of the TCIS’s components and features. It also summarizes recent pilot studies, providing examples of how the TCIS has inspired new research, helping to increase our understanding of TCs. The goal is to encourage more users to take full advantage of the novel capabilities. TCIS allows atmospheric scientists to focus on new ideas and concepts rather than painstakingly gathering data scattered over several agencies.

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