Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 20 items for :

  • Author or Editor: B. L. Li x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
W. Gao
and
B. L. Li

Abstract

Wavelet analysis was applied to turbulence data for temperature and vertical velocity within and above a deciduous forest. This method appears to provide an objective technique for examining thermal and flow fields associated with coherent structures occurring near the forest. The two-dimensional unfolding in time and scale by the wavelet transform illustrates discrete warm and cool centers associated with organized updrafts and downdrafts, which have similar patterns but different magnitudes at different heights. Wavelet variances computed for temperature and velocity at different heights appear to have local maximum values corresponding to certain time scales, which are self-consistent and useful for objective determination of the principal time scale of the structures. Within the canopy, the principal time scales of the structures determined by this technique are 56–60 s and 40–44 s for the temperature and vertical velocity fields, respectively. These time scales are close to those determined by the multilevel detection scheme used in a previous analysis. The temperature structures above the canopy have a shorter duration, but the rate of the decrease in the time scale with increasing height appears to be proportional to the increase in mean wind speed. The horizontal size of the structure determined by the product of local wind speed and the detected principal time scales is in the range of 83–112 m. The time scale of the structures identified in vertical velocity appears to be consistently smaller than that in the thermal field. The canopy structures show a smooth connection in the scale change with circulations of lower frequency (about 5–7 min) and merge into updrafts and downdrafts of these larger-scale circulations.

Full access
Z. Liu
,
B. Otto-Bliesner
,
J. Kutzbach
,
L. Li
, and
C. Shields

Abstract

Evolution of global monsoons in the Holocene is simulated in a coupled climate model—the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model—and is also compared with the simulations in another coupled climate model—the NCAR Climate System Model. Holocene climates are simulated under the insolation forcing at 3000, 6000, 8000, and 11 000 years before present. The evolution of six major regional summer monsoons is investigated: the Asian monsoon, the North African monsoon, the North American monsoon, the Australian monsoon, the South American monsoon, and the South African monsoon. Special attention has been paid to the relative roles of the direct insolation forcing and oceanic feedback.

It is found that the responses of the monsoons to the insolation forcing and oceanic feedback differ substantially among regions, because of regional features of atmospheric and oceanic circulation and ocean–atmosphere interaction. In the Northern Hemisphere, the coupled models show a significant enhancement of all of the monsoons in the early Holocene and a gradual weakening toward the present, with the North African monsoon showing the largest relative changes. The monsoons are enhanced in the Holocene by a positive oceanic feedback in North Africa and North America but are suppressed by a negative overall feedback in Asia. In the Southern Hemisphere, monsoons are reduced most significantly in South America, and modestly in South Africa, mainly due to direct insolation forcing. In contrast, the Australian monsoon is enhanced by an overwhelming positive oceanic feedback. The simulated evolution of monsoons during the Holocene shows a general agreement with paleoclimate observations.

Full access
B. L. Zhuang
,
S. Li
,
T. J. Wang
,
J. Liu
,
H. M. Chen
,
P. L. Chen
,
M. M. Li
, and
M. Xie

Abstract

Black carbon aerosol (BC) has a significant influence on regional climate changes because of its warming effect. Such changes will feed back to BC loadings. Here, the interactions between the BC warming effect and the East Asian monsoon (EAM) in both winter (EAWM) and summer (EASM) are investigated using a regional climate model, RegCM4, that essentially captures the EAM features and the BC variations in China. The seasonal mean BC optical depth is 0.021 over East Asia during winter, which is 10.5% higher than that during summer. Nevertheless, the BC direct radiative forcing is 32% stronger during summer (+1.85 W m−2). The BC direct effect would induce lower air to warm by 0.11–0.12 K, which causes a meridional circulation anomaly associated with a cyclone at 20°–30°N and southerly anomalies at 850 hPa over East Asia. Consequently, the EAM circulation is weakened during winter but enhanced during summer. Precipitation is likely increased, especially in southern China during summer (by 3.73%). Relative to BC changes that result from EAM interannual variations, BC changes from its warming effect are as important but are weaker. BC surface concentrations are decreased by 1%–3% during both winter and summer, whereas the columnar BC is increased in south China during winter. During the strongest monsoon years, the BC loadings are higher at lower latitudes than those during the weakest years, resulting in more southerly meridional circulation anomalies and BC feedbacks during both winter and summer. However, the interactions between the BC warming effect and EAWM/EASM are more intense during the weakest monsoon years.

Open access
Eun-Han Kwon
,
B. J. Sohn
,
William L. Smith
, and
Jun Li

Abstract

Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) data are evaluated using collocated radiosonde data from September 2008 to August 2009 over East Asia. The level-2 products used in this study were provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. By using radiosonde observations as a reference, the bias and root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the temperature and water vapor profiles are obtained to examine the performance of the IASI retrievals depending on surface types and the degree of atmospheric moisture. Overall, retrievals over the land or under drier atmospheric conditions show degraded performance for both the temperature and the moisture, especially for the boundary layer temperature. It is further shown that the vertical distributions of the RMSEs and the biases of the IASI retrievals resemble the variability pattern of the radiosonde observations from the mean profiles. These retrieval aspects are thought to be related to the surface emissivity effect on the IASI retrieval and the difficulties of accounting for large atmospheric variability in the retrieval process. Although the retrieval performance appears to degrade under cloudy conditions, cloudy- and clear-sky retrievals show similar statistical behaviors varying with surface type and atmospheric moisture. Furthermore, the similar statistical behaviors between first guess and final retrievals suggest that error characteristics inherent to the first guess were not sufficiently resolved by the physical retrieval process, leaving a need to improve the first guess for the better retrieval.

Full access
A. M. Makarieva
,
V. G. Gorshkov
,
A. V. Nefiodov
,
D. Sheil
,
A. D. Nobre
,
P. Bunyard
, and
B.-L. Li

Abstract

Precipitation generates small-scale turbulent air flows—the energy of which ultimately dissipates to heat. The power of this process has previously been estimated to be around 2–4 W m−2 in the tropics: a value comparable in magnitude to the dynamic power of global atmospheric circulation. Here it is suggested that the true value is approximately half the value of this previous estimate. The result reflects a revised evaluation of the mean precipitation pathlength HP . The dependence of HP on surface temperature, relative humidity, temperature lapse rate, and degree of condensation in the ascending air were investigated. These analyses indicate that the degree of condensation, defined as the relative change of the saturated water vapor mixing ratio in the region of condensation, is a major factor determining HP . From this theory the authors develop an estimate indicating that the mean large-scale rate of frictional dissipation associated with total precipitation in the tropics lies between 1 and 2 W m−2 and show empirical evidence in support of this estimate. Under terrestrial conditions frictional dissipation is found to constitute a minor fraction of the dynamic power of condensation-induced atmospheric circulation, which is estimated to be at least 2.5 times larger. However, because HP increases with increasing surface temperature Ts , the rate of frictional dissipation would exceed the power of condensation-induced dynamics, and thus block major circulation, at Ts ≳ 320 K in a moist adiabatic atmosphere.

Full access
A. M. Makarieva
,
V. G. Gorshkov
,
D. Sheil
,
A. D. Nobre
,
P. Bunyard
, and
B.-L. Li

Abstract

The influence of forest loss on rainfall remains poorly understood. Addressing this challenge, Spracklen et al. recently presented a pantropical study of rainfall and land cover that showed that satellite-derived rainfall measures were positively correlated with the degree to which model-derived air trajectories had been exposed to forest cover. This result confirms the influence of vegetation on regional rainfall patterns suggested in previous studies. However, the conclusion of Spracklen et al.—that differences in rainfall reflect air moisture content resulting from evapotranspiration while the circulation pattern remains unchanged—appears undermined by methodological inconsistencies. Here methodological problems are identified with the underlying analyses and the quantitative estimates for rainfall change predicted if forest cover is lost in the Amazon. Alternative explanations are presented that include the distinct role of forest evapotranspiration in creating low-pressure systems that draw moisture from the oceans to the continental hinterland. A wholly new analysis of meteorological data from three regions in Brazil, including the central Amazon forest, reveals a tendency for rainy days during the wet season with column water vapor (CWV) exceeding 50 mm to have higher pressure than rainless days, while at lower CWV, rainy days tend to have lower pressure than rainless days. The coupling between atmospheric moisture content and circulation dynamics underlines that the danger posed by forest loss is greater than suggested by consideration of moisture recycling alone.

Full access
Z. Q. Li
,
H. Xu
,
K. T. Li
,
D. H. Li
,
Y. S. Xie
,
L. Li
,
Y. Zhang
,
X. F. Gu
,
W. Zhao
,
Q. J. Tian
,
R. R. Deng
,
X. L. Su
,
B. Huang
,
Y. L. Qiao
,
W. Y. Cui
,
Y. Hu
,
C. L. Gong
,
Y. Q. Wang
,
X. F. Wang
,
J. P. Wang
,
W. B. Du
,
Z. Q. Pan
,
Z. Z. Li
, and
D. Bu

Abstract

An overview of Sun–Sky Radiometer Observation Network (SONET) measurements in China is presented. Based on observations at 16 distributed SONET sites in China, atmospheric aerosol parameters are acquired via standardization processes of operational measurement, maintenance, calibration, inversion, and quality control implemented since 2010. A climatology study is performed focusing on total columnar atmospheric aerosol characteristics, including optical (aerosol optical depth, ÅngstrÖm exponent, fine-mode fraction, single-scattering albedo), physical (volume particle size distribution), chemical composition (black carbon; brown carbon; fine-mode scattering component, coarse-mode component; and aerosol water), and radiative properties (aerosol radiative forcing and efficiency). Data analyses show that aerosol optical depth is low in the west but high in the east of China. Aerosol composition also shows significant spatial and temporal variations, leading to noticeable diversities in optical and physical property patterns. In west and north China, aerosols are generally affected by dust particles, while monsoon climate and human activities impose remarkable influences on aerosols in east and south China. Aerosols in China exhibit strong light-scattering capability and result in significant radiative cooling effects.

Full access
L. M. Beal
,
J. Vialard
,
M. K. Roxy
,
J. Li
,
M. Andres
,
H. Annamalai
,
M. Feng
,
W. Han
,
R. Hood
,
T. Lee
,
M. Lengaigne
,
R. Lumpkin
,
Y. Masumoto
,
M. J. McPhaden
,
M. Ravichandran
,
T. Shinoda
,
B. M. Sloyan
,
P. G. Strutton
,
A. C. Subramanian
,
T. Tozuka
,
C. C. Ummenhofer
,
A. S. Unnikrishnan
,
J. Wiggert
,
L. Yu
,
L. Cheng
,
D. G. Desbruyères
, and
V. Parvathi
Full access
William B. Willis
,
William E. Eichinger
,
John H. Prueger
,
Cathleen J. Hapeman
,
Hong Li
,
Michael D. Buser
,
Jerry L. Hatfield
,
John D. Wanjura
,
Gregory A. Holt
,
Alba Torrents
,
Sean J. Plenner
,
Warren Clarida
,
Stephen D. Browne
,
Peter M. Downey
, and
Qi Yao

Abstract

Pollutant emissions to the atmosphere commonly derive from nonpoint sources that are extended in space. Such sources may contain area, volume, line, or a combination of emission types. Currently, point measurements, often combined with models, are the primary means by which atmospheric emission rates are estimated from extended sources. Point measurement arrays often lack in spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy. In recent years, lidar has supplemented point measurements in agricultural research by sampling spatial ensembles nearly instantaneously. Here, a methodology using backscatter data from an elastic scanning lidar is presented to estimate emission rates from extended sources. To demonstrate the approach, a known amount of particulate matter was released upwind of a vegetative environmental buffer, a barrier designed to intercept emissions from animal production facilities. The emission rate was estimated downwind of the buffer, and the buffer capture efficiency (percentage of particles captured) was calculated. Efficiencies ranged from 21% to 74% and agree with the ranges previously published. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis of the lidar methodology was performed, revealing an uncertainty of 20% in the emission rate estimate; suggestions for significantly reducing this uncertainty in future studies are made. The methodology introduced here is demonstrated by estimating the efficiency of a vegetative buffer, but it can also be applied to any extended emission source for which point samples are inadequate, such as roads, animal feedlots, and cotton gin operations. It can also be applied to any pollutant for which a lidar system is configured, such as particulate matter, carbon dioxide, and ammonia.

Full access
B. W. Golding
,
S. P. Ballard
,
K. Mylne
,
N. Roberts
,
A. Saulter
,
C. Wilson
,
P. Agnew
,
L. S. Davis
,
J. Trice
,
C. Jones
,
D. Simonin
,
Z. Li
,
C. Pierce
,
A. Bennett
,
M. Weeks
, and
S. Moseley

The provision of weather forecasts for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012 offered the opportunity for the Met Office to accelerate the transition to operations of several advanced numerical modeling capabilities and to demonstrate their performance to external scientists. It was also an event that captured public interest, providing an opportunity to educate and build trust in the weather forecasting enterprise in the United Kingdom and beyond. The baseline NWP guidance for the duration of the Olympic Games came from three main configurations of the Met Office Unified Model: global 25-km deterministic, North Atlantic/Europe 18-km ensemble, and U.K. 1.5-km deterministic. The advanced capabilities demonstrated during the Olympic Games consisted of a rapid-update hourly cycle of a 1.5-km grid length configuration for the southern United Kingdom using four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) and enhanced observations; a 2.2-km grid length U.K. ensemble; a 333-m grid length configuration of the Unified Model and 250-m configuration of the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) ocean wave model for Weymouth Bay; and a 12-km grid length configuration of Air Quality in the Unified Model with prognostic aerosols and chemistry. Despite their different levels of maturity, each of the new capabilities provided useful additional guidance to Met Office weather advisors, contributing to an outstanding service to the Olympic Games organizers and the public. The website provided layered access to information about the science and to selected real-time products, substantially raising the profile of Met Office weather forecasting research among the United Kingdom and overseas public.

Full access