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  • Author or Editor: B. Vonnegut x
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B. Vonnegut

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B. Vonnegut

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B. Vonnegut
and
C. B. Moore

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C. B. Moore
and
B. Vonnegut

Abstract

Measurements of the conduction current between two electrodes in air over recently boiled water have been interpreted by Carlon as indicating that the humidified air became highly conductive and that large numbers of ions were produced in the air after it was saturated with water vapor. These interpretations have been questioned because it is possible that the insulators used in the high-humidity experiments allowed leakage currents to flow and these were treated as though they were conduction currents through the air.

We repeated these measurements with the use of a conventional, Gerdien cylinder conductivity-measuring apparatus that had insulators heated to temperatures above the dew point of the water vapor in the air being measured so that the insulators maintained high resistances. The results from the heated Gerdien cylinder experiments contradict the suggestions of high conductivities in humid air, for the measured conductivities of air were repeatedly observed to decrease by about 50% when recently boiled, hot water was brought in contact with the air.

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C. B. Moore
and
B. Vonnegut

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R. F. Griffiths
and
B. Vonnegut

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A. K. Kamra
and
B. Vonnegut

Abstract

A laboratory experiment has been performed to study the relative effect of aerodynamic and electrical forces an small electrically conducting particles of radii 100–200 μ colliding with a particle of 2 mm radius suspended in an upward moving vertical air stream of a wind tunnel and placed in a vertical polarizing electric field. It has been observed, in a low electric field, that the smaller particles collide and move up with the air stream. However, as the electric field is increased, the smaller particles start coming down, after the collision, against the air stream. The electric field required for this change of direction for different particle sizes is higher for the larger angles of collision. When these results are applied to thunderstorms with high electric fields, it is shown that the electrical forces on the charged cloud particles must be taken into account in any consideration of the gravitational separation of charges. Our experimental results indicate that in high electric fields these electric forces can limit and even oppose the further separation of charges.

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B. Vonnegut
,
C. B. Moore
, and
C. K. Harris

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B. Vonnegut
,
C. B. Moore
, and
C. K. Harris

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B. Vonnegut
,
A. J. Illingworth
, and
P. R. Krehbiel

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