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  • Author or Editor: Brian K. Haus x
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Dahai Jeong
,
Brian K. Haus
, and
Mark A. Donelan

Abstract

Controlled experiments were conducted in the Air–Sea Interaction Saltwater Tank (ASIST) at the University of Miami to investigate air–sea moist enthalpy transfer rates under various wind speeds (range of 0.6–39 m s−1 scaled to equivalent 10-m neutral winds) and water–air temperature differences (range of 1.3°–9.2°C). An indirect calorimetric (heat content budget) measurement technique yielded accurate determinations of moist enthalpy flux over the full range of wind speeds. These winds included conditions with significant spray generation, the concentrations of which were of the same order as field observations. The moist enthalpy exchange coefficient so measured included a contribution from cooled reentrant spray and therefore serves as an upper limit for the interfacial transfer of enthalpy. An unknown quantity of spray was also observed to exit the tank without evaporating. By invoking an air volume enthalpy budget it was determined that the potential contribution of this exiting spray over an unbounded water volume was up to 28%. These two limits bound the total enthalpy transfer coefficient including spray-mediated transfers.

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Andrew W. Smith
,
Brian K. Haus
, and
Jun A. Zhang

Abstract

This study analyzes high-resolution ship data collected in the Gulf of Mexico during the Lagrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) from January to February 2016 to produce the first reported measurements of dissipative heating in the explicitly nonhurricane atmospheric surface layer. Although typically computed from theory as a function of wind speed cubed, the dissipative heating directly estimated via the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate is also presented. The dissipative heating magnitude agreed with a previous study that estimated the dissipative heating in the hurricane boundary layer using in situ aircraft data. Our observations that the 10-m neutral drag coefficient parameterized using TKE dissipation rate approaches zero slope as wind increases suggests that TKE dissipation and dissipative heating are constrained to a physical limit. Both surface-layer stability and sea state were observed to be important conditions influencing dissipative heating, with the stability determined via TKE budget terms and the sea state determined via wave steepness and age using direct shipboard measurements. Momentum and enthalpy fluxes used in the TKE budget are determined using the eddy-correlation method. It is found that the TKE dissipation rate and the dissipative heating are largest in a nonneutral atmospheric surface layer with a sea surface comprising steep wind sea and slow swell waves at a given surface wind speed, whereas the ratio of dissipative heating to enthalpy fluxes is largest in near-neutral stability where the turbulent vertical velocities are near zero.

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David G. Ortiz-Suslow
,
Brian K. Haus
,
Sanchit Mehta
, and
Nathan J. M. Laxague

Abstract

Quantifying the amount and rate of sea spray production at the ocean surface is critical to understanding the effect spray has on atmospheric boundary layer processes (e.g., tropical cyclones). Currently, only limited observational data exist that can be used to validate available droplet production models. To help fill this gap, a laboratory experiment was conducted that directly observed the vertical distribution of spume droplets above actively breaking waves. The experiments were carried out in hurricane-force conditions (10-m equivalent wind speed of 36–54 m s−1), and the observed particles ranged in radius r from 80 to nearly 1400 μm. High-resolution profiles (3 mm) were reconstructed from optical imagery taken within the boundary layer, ranging from 2 to 6 times the local significant wave height. Number concentrations were observed to have a radius dependence proportional to r −3 leading to spume production estimates that diverge from typical source models, which tend to exhibit a radius falloff closer to r −8. This was particularly significant for droplets with radii circa 1 mm whose modeled production rates were several orders of magnitude less than the rates expected from the observed concentrations. The vertical dependence of the number concentrations was observed to follow a logarithmic profile, which does not confirm the power-law relationship expected by a conventional spume generation parameterization. These observations bear significant implications for efforts to characterize the role these large droplets play in boundary layer processes under high-wind conditions.

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