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Seung-Jong Baek
Istvan Szunyogh
Brian R. Hunt
, and
Edward Ott


Model error is the component of the forecast error that is due to the difference between the dynamics of the atmosphere and the dynamics of the numerical prediction model. The systematic, slowly varying part of the model error is called model bias. This paper evaluates three different ensemble-based strategies to account for the surface pressure model bias in the analysis scheme. These strategies are based on modifying the observation operator for the surface pressure observations by the addition of a bias-correction term. One estimates the correction term adaptively, while another uses the hydrostatic balance equation to obtain the correction term. The third strategy combines an adaptively estimated correction term and the hydrostatic-balance-based correction term. Numerical experiments are carried out in an idealized setting, where the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) model is integrated at resolution T62L28 to simulate the evolution of the atmosphere and the T30L7 resolution Simplified Parameterization Primitive Equation Dynamics (SPEEDY) model is used for data assimilation. The results suggest that the adaptive bias-correction term is effective in correcting the bias in the data-rich regions, while the hydrostatic-balance-based approach is effective in data-sparse regions. The adaptive bias-correction approach also has the benefit that it leads to a significant improvement of the temperature and wind analysis at the higher model levels. The best results are obtained when the two bias-correction approaches are combined.

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