Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 26 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Bryan Baum x
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Bryan A. Baum and Bruce A. Wielicki

Abstract

In this study we perform an error analysis for cloud-top pressure retrieval using the High-Resolution Infrared Radiometric Sounder (HIRS/2) 15-µm CO2 channels for the two-layer case of transmissive cirrus overlying an overcast, opaque stratiform cloud. This analysis includes standard deviation and bias error due to instrument noise and the presence of two cloud layers, the lower of which is opaque. Instantaneous cloud pressure retrieval errors are determined for a range of cloud amounts (0.1–1.0) and cloud-top pressures (850−250 mb). Large cloud-top pressure retrieval errors are found to occur when a lower opaque layer is present underneath an upper transmissive cloud layer in the satellite field of view (FOV). Errors tend to increase with decreasing upper-cloud elective cloud amount and with decreasing cloud height (increasing pressure). Errors in retrieved upper-cloud pressure result in corresponding errors in derived effective cloud amount. For the case in which a HIRS FOV has two distinct cloud layers, the difference between the retrieved and actual cloud-top pressure is positive in all casts, meaning that the retrieved upper-cloud height is lower than the actual upper-cloud height. In addition, errors in retrieved cloud pressure are found to depend upon the lapse rate between the low-level cloud top and the surface. We examined which sounder channel combinations would minimize the total errors in derived cirrus cloud height caused by instrument noise and by the presence of a lower-level cloud. We find that while the sounding channels that peak between 700 and 1000 mb minimize random errors, the sounding channels that peak at 300—500 mb minimize bias errors. For a cloud climatology, the bias errors are most critical.

Full access
Andrew J. Heymsfield, Sergey Matrosov, and Bryan Baum

Abstract

Particle size distribution (PSD) and particle shape information collected during Lagrangian spiral descents and balloon ascents through 13 midlatitude and 6 tropical ice clouds are analyzed to investigate the relationship between cloud optical depth in visible wavelengths (τυ) and the ice water path (IWP). Although this sample size is small, it is far larger than the number of samples used in earlier studies and has the added benefit that it contains data from the top to the bottom of cloud layers, averaging 3 km in geometrical thickness. Furthermore, the observed particle shape and habit information are used directly in the investigation, rather than assuming that the habits are one of a number of pristine types. These observations apply to midlatitude clouds in the temperature range from −65° to −20°C, with τυ between 0.5 and 7, and estimated radar reflectivities primarily in the range from −20 to 5 dBZe (at a frequency of 35 GHz), with some observations extending down to −45 dBZe. The tropical observations apply to clouds in the temperature range from −50° to 0°C, with τυ in the range 20–30, and radar reflectivities primarily between −5 and 25 dBZe (at a frequency of 35 GHz). Quantitative relationships between τυ and IWP that depend on the cloud thickness, midcloud temperature, slope of the particle size distribution, median mass diameter, and effective radius are explored and developed. The underlying basis of these relationships is the correlation between the slope of the particle size distribution and cloud temperature or thickness. The slope of the particle size distribution tends to decrease with increasing cloud thickness (beginning from cloud top) and temperature. This tendency toward a flatter spectral slope, with increasing penetration into the cloud layer, leads to a monotonic decrease in the extinction coefficient relative to the ice water content downward from the cloud top to base. Relationships between τυ and IWP as a function of the effective radius (re) and the median mass diameter (Dm) are found from these observations, and are compared with those found in earlier studies. Given a value of the IWP and a known value of re, the earlier studies provide estimates of the τυ that are comparable to the results of this study. Several means of estimating re and Dm indirectly, to circumvent the need to know the values of these variables directly from measurements, are developed. First, relationships are developed between re and IWP. Second, relationships are developed to retrieve these variables from vertically pointing Doppler radar observations.

Full access
Bryan A. Baum, Bruce A. Wielicki, Patrick Minnis, and Lindsay Parker

Abstract

A technique is developed that uses a multispectral, multiresolution (MSMR) method to improve the overall retrieval of mid-to high-level cloud properties by combining HIRS sounding channel data with higher spatial resolution AVHRR radiometric data collocated with the HIRS footprint. Cirrus cloud radiative and physical properties are determined using satellite data, surface-based measurements provided by rawinsondes and lidar, and aircraft-based lidar data collected during the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program) Regional Experiment (FIRE) in Wisconsin during the months of October and November 1986. HIRS cloud-height retrievals are compared to ground-based lidar and aircraft lidar when possible. Retrieved cloud heights are found to have close agreement with lidar for thin cloud, but are higher than lidar for optically thick cloud. The fact that the retrieved cloud height is higher than lidar for optically thick cloud is probably due to the attenuation of the lidar signal before the signal reaches through the cloud, while the satellite is viewing the cloud from above. AVHRR visible (0.63-μm) and infrared (11-μm) radiances are analyzed to determine the cloud emittances and reflectances collocated with each HIRS pixel. The bidirectional reflectances from the AVHRR visible-channel data are corrected for solar direct and diffuse surface reflection to isolate the cloud reflectance. The individual AVHRR pixel emittances are calculated using the cloud-top temperature derived from the HIRS cloud-retrieval analysis. The results of the reflectance-emittance relationships derived in this fashion are compared to theoretical scattering model results for both water-droplet spheres and randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals. It is found that the assumption of 10-μm water droplets is inadequate to describe the reflectance-emittance relationship for the ice clouds seen here. Use of this assumption would lead to lower cloud heights using the ISCCP approach. The theoretical results show that use of hexagonal ice-crystal phase functions could lead to much improved results for cloud retrieval algorithms using a bispectral approach.

Full access
Bryan A. Baum, Vasanth Tovinkere, Jay Titlow, and Ronald M. Welch

Abstract

A fuzzy logic classification (FLC) methodology is proposed to achieve the two goals of this paper: 1) to discriminate between clear sky and clouds in a 32 × 32 pixel array, or sample, of 1.1-km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, and 2) if clouds are present, to discriminate between single-layered and multilayered clouds within the sample. To achieve these goals, eight FLC modules are derived that are based broadly on airmass type and surface type (land or water): equatorial over land, marine tropical over land, marine tropical/equatorial over water, continental tropical over land, marine polar over land, marine polar over water, continental polar over land, and continental polar/arctic over water. Derivation of airmass type is performed using gridded analyses provided by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction.

The training and testing data used by the FLC are collected from more than 150 daytime AVHRR local area coverage scenes recorded between 1991 and 1994 over all seasons and over all continents and oceans. A total of 190 textural and spectral features are computed from the AVHRR data. A forward feature selection method is implemented to reduce the number of features used to discriminate between classes in each FLC module. The number of features selected ranges from 13 (marine tropical over land) to 24 (marine tropical/equatorial over water). An estimate of the classifier accuracy is determined using the hold-one-out method in which the classifier is trained with all but one of the data samples; the classifier is applied subsequently to the remaining sample.

The overall accuracies of the eight classification modules are calculated by dividing the number of correctly classified samples by the total number of manually labeled samples of clear-sky and single-layer clouds. Individual module classification accuracies are as follows: equatorial over land (86.2%), marine tropical over land (85.6%), marine tropical/equatorial over water (88.6%), continental tropical over land (87.4%), marine polar over land (86.8%), marine polar over water (84.8%), continental polar over land (91.1%), and continental polar/arctic over water (89.8%). Single-level cloud samples misclassified as multilayered clouds range between 0.5% (continental polar over land) and 3.4% (marine polar over land) for the eight airmass modules.

Classification accuracies for a set of labeled multilayered cloud samples range between 64% and 81% for six of the eight airmass modules (excluded are the continental polar over land and continental polar/arctic over water modules, for which multilayered cloud samples are difficult to find). The results indicate that the FLC has an encouraging ability to distinguish between single-level and multilayered clouds.

Full access
Yue Li, Gerald R. North, Ping Yang, and Bryan A. Baum

Abstract

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations provide an unprecedented opportunity for studying cloud macrophysical (cloud-top pressure, temperature, height, and phase), microphysical (effective particle size), and optical (optical thickness) properties. Given the length of time these MODIS products have been available, it is found that the cloud products can provide a wealth of information about equatorial wave systems. In this study, more than six years of the MODIS cloud-top properties inferred from the Aqua MODIS observations are used to investigate equatorial waves. It is shown that the high-resolution daily gridded cloud-top temperature product can be used to quantitatively study convective clouds. Various modes of convectively coupled equatorial waves including Kelvin, n = 1 equatorial Rossby, mixed Rossby–gravity, n = 0 eastward inertial-gravity waves, and the Madden–Julian oscillation are identified on the basis of space–time spectral analysis. The application of spectral analysis to cirrus cloud optical thickness, retrieved from MODIS cirrus reflectance, confirms the convective signals at high altitudes. A cluster of Kelvin pulses is found to propagate eastward around the globe at a phase speed approximately 15 m s−1. The Madden–Julian oscillation propagates at a slower speed and is most prominent over the Indian–Pacific Oceans region. The consistency between the present results with those of previous studies demonstrates that the MODIS cloud-top property products are valuable for studying phenomena associated with atmospheric dynamics.

Full access
Seung-Hee Ham, Byung-Ju Sohn, Ping Yang, and Bryan A. Baum

Abstract

Observations made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), and CloudSat are synergistically used to evaluate the accuracy of theoretical simulations of the radiances at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Specifically, TOA radiances of 15 MODIS bands are simulated for overcast, optically thick, and single-phase clouds only over the ocean from 60°N to 60°S, corresponding to about 12% of all the MODIS cloud observations. Plane parallel atmosphere is assumed in the simulation by restricting viewing/solar zenith angle to be less than 40°. Input data for the radiative transfer model (RTM) are obtained from the operational MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and cloud-top pressure (converted to height) collocated with the AIRS-retrieved temperature and humidity profiles. In the RTM, ice cloud bulk scattering properties, based on theoretical scattering computations and in situ microphysical data, are used for the radiative transfer simulations. The results show that radiances for shortwave bands between 0.466 and 0.857 μm appear to be very accurate with errors on the order of 5%, implying that MODIS cloud parameters provide sufficient information for the radiance simulations. However, simulated radiances for the 1.24-, 1.63-, and 3.78-μm bands do not agree as well with the observed radiances as a result of the use of a single effective radius for a cloud layer that may be vertically inhomogeneous in reality. Furthermore, simulated radiances for the water vapor absorption bands located near 0.93 and 1.38 μm show positive biases, whereas the window bands from 8.5 to 12 μm show negative biases compared to observations, likely due to the less accurate estimate of cloud-top and cloud-base heights. It is further shown that the accuracies of the simulations for water vapor and window bands can be substantially improved by accounting for the vertical cloud distribution provided by the CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements.

Full access
Shouguo Ding, Ping Yang, Bryan A. Baum, Andrew Heidinger, and Thomas Greenwald

Abstract

This paper describes the development of an ice cloud radiance simulator for the anticipated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) solar channels. The simulator is based on the discrete ordinates radiative transfer (DISORT) model. A set of correlated k-distribution (CKD) models is developed for the ABI solar channels to account for atmospheric trace gas absorption. The CKD models are based on the ABI spectral response functions and also consider when multiple gases have overlapping absorption. The related errors of the transmittance profile are estimated on the basis of the exact line-by-line results, and it is found that errors in transmittance are less than 0.2% for all but one of the ABI solar channels. The exception is for the 1.378-μm channel, centered near a strong water vapor absorption band, for which the errors are less than 2%. For ice clouds, the band-averaged bulk-scattering properties for each ABI [and corresponding Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)] solar channel are derived using an updated single-scattering property database of both smooth and severely roughened ice particles, which include droxtals, hexagonal plates, hexagonal hollow and solid columns, three-dimensional hollow and solid bullet rosettes, and several types of aggregates. The comparison shows close agreement between the radiance simulator and the benchmark model, the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM)+DISORT model. The radiances of the ABI and corresponding MODIS measurements are compared. The results show that the radiance differences between the ABI and MODIS channels under ice cloud conditions are likely due to the different band-averaged imaginary indices of refraction.

Full access
Chen Zhou, Ping Yang, Andrew E. Dessler, Yongxiang Hu, and Bryan A. Baum

Abstract

Data from the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) indicate that horizontally oriented ice crystals (HOIC) occur frequently in both ice and mixed-phase clouds. When compared with the case for clouds consisting of randomly oriented ice crystals (ROIC), lidar measurements from clouds with HOIC, such as horizontally oriented hexagonal plates or columns, have stronger backscatter signals and smaller depolarization ratio values. In this study, a 3D Monte Carlo model is developed for simulating the CALIOP signals from clouds consisting of a mixture of quasi HOIC and ROIC. With CALIOP’s initial orientation with a pointing angle of 0.3° off nadir, the integrated attenuated backscatter is linearly related to the percentage of HOIC but is negatively related to the depolarization ratio. At a later time in the CALIOP mission, the pointing angle of the incident beam was changed to 3° off nadir to minimize the signal from HOIC. In this configuration, both the backscatter and the depolarization ratio are similar for clouds containing HOIC and ROIC. Horizontally oriented columns with two opposing prism facets perpendicular to the lidar beam and horizontally oriented plates show similar backscattering features, but the effect of columns is negligible in comparison with that of plates because the plates have relatively much larger surfaces facing the incident lidar beam. From the comparison between the CALIOP simulations and observations, it is estimated that the percentage of quasi-horizontally oriented plates ranges from 0% to 6% in optically thick mixed-phase clouds, from 0% to 3% in warm ice clouds (>−35°C), and from 0% to 0.5% in cold ice clouds.

Full access
Elisabeth Weisz, W. Paul Menzel, Nadia Smith, Richard Frey, Eva E. Borbas, and Bryan A. Baum

Abstract

The next-generation Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) offers infrared (IR)-window measurements with a horizontal spatial resolution of at least 1 km, but it lacks IR spectral bands that are sensitive to absorption by carbon dioxide (CO2) or water vapor (H2O). The CO2 and H2O absorption bands have high sensitivity for the inference of cloud-top pressure (CTP), especially for semitransparent ice clouds. To account for the lack of vertical resolution, the “merging gradient” (MG) approach is introduced, wherein the high spatial resolution of an imager is combined with the high vertical resolution of a sounder for improved CTP retrievals. The Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is on the same payload as VIIRS. In this paper Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data are used as proxies for VIIRS and CrIS, respectively, although the approach can be applied to any imager–sounder pair. The MG method establishes a regression relationship between gradients in both the sounder radiances convolved to imager bands and the sounder CTP retrievals. This relationship is then applied to the imager radiance measurements to obtain CTP retrievals at imager spatial resolution. Comparisons with Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) cloud altitudes are presented for a variety of cloud scenes. Results demonstrate the ability of the MG algorithm to add spatial definition to the sounder retrievals with a higher accuracy and precision than those obtained solely from the imager.

Full access
Bryan A. Baum, Ping Yang, Shaima Nasiri, Andrew K. Heidinger, Andrew Heymsfield, and Jun Li

Abstract

This study reports on the development of bulk single-scattering models for ice clouds that are appropriate for use in hyperspectral radiative transfer cloud modeling over the spectral range from 100 to 3250 cm−1. The models are developed in a manner similar to that recently reported for the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); therefore these models result in a consistent set of scattering properties from visible to far-infrared wavelengths. The models incorporate a new database of individual ice-particle scattering properties that includes droxtals, 3D bullet rosettes, hexagonal solid and hollow columns, aggregates, and plates. The database provides single-scattering properties for each habit in 45 size bins ranging from 2 to 9500 μm, and for 49 wavenumbers between 100 and 3250 cm−1, which is further interpolated to 3151 discrete wavenumbers on the basis of a third-order spline interpolation method. Bulk models are developed by integrating various properties over both particle habit and size distributions. Individual bulk models are developed for 18 effective diameters D eff, ranging from D eff = 10 μm to D eff = 180 μm. A total of 1117 particle size distributions are used in the analyses and are taken from analysis of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment (FIRE)-I, FIRE-II, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program intensive operation period (ARM-IOP), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Kwajalein Experiment (TRMM-KWAJEX), and Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers Florida-Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) data. The models include microphysical and scattering properties such as median mass diameter, effective diameter, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, and scattering phase function. The spectral models are appropriate for applications involving the interpretation of the radiometric measurements of ice clouds acquired by infrared spectrometers such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA Aqua satellite and the Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the upcoming National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) platforms.

Full access