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R. A. Antonia, A. J. Chambers, C. A. Friehe, and C. W. Van Atta


A review of the evidence for the organized temperature structure observed in both the atmospheric surface layer and the laboratory boundary layer reveals similar features between the two turbulent flows. This similarity suggests that the atmospheric temperature ramp may be interpreted as the signature of an organized large-scale motion rather than a necessary consequence of the presence of buoyant plumes. An experiment was conducted in which the translation velocity Ut of the sharp edge of the temperature ramp is determined from the transit time of the ramp between two thermistors placed at the same height in the marine surface layer but separated in a direction parallel to the wind. Ut was found to be in more nearly constant ratio to the local velocity than to the friction velocity. Velocities determined from the phase angle of the temperature cross spectrum and from the optimum temperature cross correlation obtained from the two thermistors are in reasonable agreement with Ut. Cross correlations of temperature signals from thermistors separated in either vertical or lateral directions are briefly discussed in the context of the spatial geometry of the organized temperature structure.

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C. D. Winant, C. E. Dorman, C. A. Friehe, and R. C. Beardsley


During the spring and summer, northerly winds driven by the North Pacific high pressure system are prevalent over the Northern California continental shelf, only interrupted for periods of a few days, when weak or southerly winds occur. In the course of the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE), fixed station and observations were made to describe the temporal and spatial structure of the lower atmosphere, and their relation to the strong upwelling of coastal waters in a region extending up to 40 km offshore and 100 km along the coast. These observations suggest that atmospheric conditions during the spring and summer usually fall into one of three categories: the surface wind can be everywhere weak (Pattern 1), it can blow at large speeds in a uniform pattern (Pattern 2), or finally the structure of the northerly surface wind can be complex, with large changes in the wind speed and corresponding changes in the surface pressure over short spatial scales (Pattern 3), The latter pattern, which occurs with generally northerly winds, is characterized by a strong low-level inversion and the spatial structure of the surface wind is correlated with the coastal topography. The inversion acts as a material interface, and the marine layer behaves as a supercritical channel flow, when the Froude number is greater than one: oblique expansion waves and hydraulic jumps, associated with changes in the orientation of the coastline, account for the observed spatial structure of the flow. Observations from mid-latitudes on the eastern side of other ocean basins suggest that similar supercritical conditions in the marine layer may prevail there also.

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F. H. Champagne, C. A. Friehe, J. C. LaRue, and J. C. Wynagaard


An AFCRL-UCSD joint experiment in Minnesota in 1973 has provided a comparison of direct and indirect measurements of the surface-layer fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture under unstable conditions. The direct momentum and heat flux measurements of the two groups agreed well, and also agreed well with values inferred by the direct dissipation technique. The moisture flux estimates from the inertial-dissipation technique also agreed well with the directly measured values.

Several of the important terms in the budgets of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent scalar variances were evaluated directly. The imbalance (or pressure transport) term in the energy budget was estimated, and the ratio of the imbalance term to the dissipation term determined from the present experiment agrees well with the Kansas results. The dissipation rate of temperature variance exceeded its production rate, in contrast with the Kansas results, implying an imbalanced temperature variance budget. Several possible contributors to this imbalance are discussed.

The one-dimensional spectra of the temperature and streamwise velocity fluctuations are presented in Kolmogorov normalized form. Spectral moments to fourth order are shown to agree with earlier results. Values of the universal velocity and temperature spectral constants

of α1=0.50±0.02 and β=0.45±0.02 were obtained.

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Steven P. Oncley, Carl A. Friehe, John C. Larue, Joost A. Businger, Eric C. Itsweire, and Sam S. Chang


An atmospheric surface-layer experiment over a nearly uniform plowed field was performed to determine the constants in the flux-profile similarity formulas, particularly the von Kármán constant. New instruments were constructed to minimize flow distortion effects on the turbulence measurements and to provide high-resolution gradient measurements. In addition, a hot-wire anemometer directly measured the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate.

An average value of the von Kármán constant of 0.365 ± 0.015 was obtained from 91 runs (31 h) in near-neutral stability conditions. However, four near-neutral runs when snow covered the ground gave an average value of 0.42. This result suggests that the von Kármán constant depends on the roughness Reynolds number, which may resolve some of the differences in previous determinations over different surfaces. The one-dimensional Kolmogorov inertial subrange constant was found to have a value of 0.54 ± 0.03, slightly larger than previous results.

The flux-profile relations for momentum and temperature variance were evaluated, and humidity variance data behaved similarly to temperature. Dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy was found to be less than production under near-neutral conditions, which suggests that turbulent or pressure transport may be significant.

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