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Christopher Bladwell
Ryan M. Holmes
, and
Jan D. Zika


The global water cycle is dominated by an atmospheric branch that transfers freshwater away from subtropical regions and an oceanic branch that returns that freshwater from subpolar and tropical regions. Salt content is commonly used to understand the oceanic branch because surface freshwater fluxes leave an imprint on ocean salinity. However, freshwater fluxes do not actually change the amount of salt in the ocean and—in the mean—no salt is transported meridionally by ocean circulation. To study the processes that determine ocean salinity, we introduce a new variable “internal salt” along with its counterpart “internal fresh water.” Precise budgets for internal salt in salinity coordinates relate meridional and diahaline transport to surface freshwater forcing, ocean circulation, and mixing and reveal the pathway of freshwater in the ocean. We apply this framework to a 1° global ocean model. We find that for freshwater to be exported from the ocean’s tropical and subpolar regions to the subtropics, salt must be mixed across the salinity surfaces that bound those regions. In the tropics, this mixing is achieved by parameterized vertical mixing, along-isopycnal mixing, and numerical mixing associated with truncation errors in the model’s advection scheme, whereas along-isopycnal mixing dominates at high latitudes. We analyze the internal freshwater budgets of the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins and identify the transport pathways between them that redistribute freshwater added through precipitation, balancing asymmetries in freshwater forcing between the basins.

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