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Jason A. Otkin, Derek J. Posselt, Erik R. Olson, Hung-Lung Huang, James E. Davies, Jun Li, and Christopher S. Velden

Abstract

A novel application of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models within an end-to-end processing system used to demonstrate advanced hyperspectral satellite technologies and instrument concepts is presented. As part of this system, sophisticated NWP models are used to generate simulated atmospheric profile datasets with fine horizontal and vertical resolution. The simulated datasets, which are treated as the “truth” atmosphere, are subsequently passed through a sophisticated forward radiative transfer model to generate simulated top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances across a broad spectral region. Atmospheric motion vectors and temperature and water vapor retrievals generated from the TOA radiances are then compared with the original model-simulated atmosphere to demonstrate the potential utility of future hyperspectral wind and retrieval algorithms. Representative examples of TOA radiances, atmospheric motion vectors, and temperature and water vapor retrievals are shown to illustrate the use of the simulated datasets.

Case study results demonstrate that the numerical models are able to realistically simulate mesoscale cloud, temperature, and water vapor structures present in the real atmosphere. Because real hyperspectral radiance measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution are not available for large geographical domains, the simulated TOA radiance datasets are the only viable alternative that can be used to demonstrate the new hyperspectral technologies and capabilities. As such, sophisticated mesoscale models are critically important for the demonstration of the future end-to-end processing system.

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