Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 29 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Chun-Chieh Wu x
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Chuan-Chieh Chang
and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

The processes leading to the rapid intensification (RI) of Typhoon Megi (2010) are explored with a convection-permitting full-physics model and a sensitivity experiment using a different microphysical scheme. It is found that the temporary active convection, gradually strengthened primary circulation, and a warm core developing at midlevels tend to serve as precursors to RI. The potential vorticity (PV) budget and Sawyer–Eliassen model are utilized to examine the causes and effects of those precursors. Results show that the secondary circulation, triggered by the latent heat associated with active convection, acts to strengthen the mid- to upper-level primary circulation by transporting the larger momentum toward the upper layers. The increased inertial stability at mid- to upper levels not only increases the heating efficiency but also prevents the warm-core structure from being disrupted by the ventilation effect. The warming above 5 km effectively lowers the surface pressure.

It is identified that the strong secondary circulation helps to accomplish the midlevel warming within the eye. The results based on potential temperature (θ) budget suggest that the mean subsidence associated with detrainment of active convection is the major process contributing to the formation of a midlevel warm core. On the possible causes triggering the inner-core active convection, it is suggested that the gradually increased vortex-scale surface enthalpy flux has a leading role in the development of vigorous convection. The results also highlight the potentially dominant role of weak to moderate convection in the onset of RI, while the convective bursts play a supporting role. Based on the aforementioned analyses, a schematic diagram is shown to describe the plausible path leading to RI.

Full access
Kuan-Chieh Huang
and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

Tropical cyclones (TCs) encountering the terrain of Taiwan usually experience prominent track deflection, resulting in uncertainty in TC track forecasts. The underlying mechanisms of TC deflection are examined to better understand the pattern of TC tracks under various flow regimes. In this study, idealized experiments are carried out utilizing the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. This study investigates the motion of a TC that is deflected southward while moving westward toward an idealized terrain similar to Taiwan. An analysis of both the flow asymmetries and the potential vorticity tendency (PVT) demonstrates that horizontal advection contributes to the southward movement of the TC. The track deflection is examined in two separate time periods, with different mechanisms leading to the southward movement. Changes in the background flow induced by the terrain first cause the large-scale steering current to push the TC southward while the TC is still far from the terrain. As the TC approaches the idealized topography, the role of the inner-core dynamics becomes important, and the TC terrain-induced channeling effect results in further southward deflection. Asymmetries in the midlevel flow also develop during this period, in part associated with the effect of vertical momentum transport. The combination of the large-scale environmental flow, the low-level channeling effect, and asymmetries in the midlevel flow all contribute to the southward deflection of the TC track.

Full access
Chieh-Jen Cheng
and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

Numerical simulations are conducted to examine the role of the wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) mechanism in secondary eyewall formation (SEF). The control experiment exhibits a coherent secondary eyewall structure as quantified by various parameters (e.g., the azimuthal-mean tangential wind and vertical velocity). Prior to SEF, an area characterized by increasing diabatic heating, enhanced inertial stability, and increasing supergradient winds at the top of the boundary layer is observed outside the eyewall. While these characteristics offer the possibility of both balanced and unbalanced dynamical pathways to SEF, the focus of this study is to evaluate the impact of WISHE. To examine the sensitivity of SEF to WISHE, the surface wind used for the calculation of surface heat fluxes is capped at several designated values and at different radial intervals. When the heat fluxes are moderately suppressed around and outside the SEF region observed in the control experiment, sensitivity experiments show that the formation of the outer eyewall is delayed, and the intensity of both eyewalls is weaker. When the heat fluxes are strongly suppressed in the same region, SEF does not occur. In contrast, suppressing the surface heat fluxes in the storm’s inner-core region has limited effect on the evolution of the outer eyewall. This study provides important physical insight into SEF, indicating that WISHE plays a crucial role in SEF and tropical cyclone evolution.

Full access
Chieh-Jen Cheng
and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

This study examines the role of surface heat fluxes, particularly in relation to the wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) mechanism, in the rapid intensification (RI) of tropical cyclones (TCs). Sensitivity experiments with capped surface fluxes and thus reduced WISHE exhibit delayed RI and weaker peak intensity, while WISHE could affect the evolutions of TCs both before and after the onset of RI. Before RI, more WISHE leads to faster increase of equivalent potential temperature in the lower levels, resulting in more active and stronger convection. In addition, TCs in experiments with more WISHE reach a certain strength earlier, before the onset of RI. During the RI period, more surface heat fluxes could provide convective instability in the lower levels, and cause a consequent development in the convective activity. More efficient intensification in a TC is found with higher surface heat fluxes and larger inertial stability, leading to a stronger peak intensity, more significant and deeper warm core in TC center, and the axisymmetrization of convection in the higher levels. In both stages, different levels of WISHE alter the thermodynamic environment and convective-scale processes. In all, this study supports the crucial role of WISHE in affecting TC intensification rate for TCs with RI.

Free access
Kosuke Ito
and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

A new sensitivity analysis method is proposed for the ensemble prediction system in which a tropical cyclone (TC) position is taken as a metric. Sensitivity is defined as a slope of linear regression (or its approximation) between state variable and a scalar representing the TC position based on ensemble simulation. The experiment results illustrate important regions for ensemble TC track forecast. The typhoon-position-oriented sensitivity analysis (TyPOS) is applied to Typhoon Shanshan (2006) for the verification time of up to 48 h. The sensitivity field of the TC central latitude with respect to the vorticity field obtained from large-scale random initial perturbation is characterized by a horizontally tilted pattern centered at the initial TC position. These sensitivity signals are generally maximized in the middle troposphere and are far more significant than those with respect to the divergence field. The results are consistent with the sensitivity signals obtained from existing methods. The verification experiments indicate that the signals from TyPOS quantitatively reflect an ensemble-mean position change as a response to the initial perturbation. Another experiment with Typhoon Dolphin (2008) demonstrates the long-term analysis of forecast sensitivity up to 96 h. Several additional tests have also been carried out to investigate the dependency among ensemble members, the impacts of using different horizontal grid spacing, and the effectiveness of ensemble-Kalman-filter-based perturbations.

Full access
Jae-Deok Lee
and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

High-resolution numerical experiments for Typhoon Megi (2010) in the western North Pacific are conducted using the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to understand the mechanisms of rapid intensification (RI). With a dynamically initialized vortex, sensitivity experiments are carried out focusing on the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the following microphysics schemes: WRF single-moment 6-class (WSM6) and WRF double-moment 6-class (WDM6) microphysics with Yonsei University, Mellor–Yamada–Janjić (MYJ), and Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi–Niino (MYNN) 2.5-level (MN2.5) and 3.0-level (MN3) PBL schemes. The largest differences are found between WSM6-MN3 and WDM6-MN3, and we therefore examine RI mechanisms based on the results of these experiments. Prior to RI, WDM6-MN3 shows a drier environment and stronger downdrafts in the lower troposphere than in WSM6-MN3. As a result, during the RI period, WSM6-MN3 (WDM6-MN3) significantly intensifies with the minimum sea level pressure decreasing by 51 (29) hPa and the maximum surface wind increasing by 28 (12) m s−1 in 24 h. In both experiments, the maximum values of surface heat fluxes, potential vorticity (PV), radial absolute angular momentum advection, inertial stability, supergradient wind, and convective bursts inside the radius of maximum winds are frequently observed at each vertex of polygonal eyewalls in the lower troposphere. In particular, WSM6-MN3 exhibits more convective cells inside the inner-core region, a more persistent and thicker polygonal eyewall in the lower troposphere, and a more robust vertical structure of hydrometeors and vertical velocity than WDM6-MN3. This study suggests that within the inner-core region, polygonal eyewalls like WSM6-MN3 provide favorable conditions for RI.

Full access
Chun-Chieh Wu
and
Yoshio Kurihara

Abstract

The interaction between a hurricane and its environment is studied by analysing the generation and influence of potential vorticity (PV) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model analysis system. Two sets of numerical experiments are performed: one with and the other without a bogused hurricane vortex in the initial time, for cases of Hurricanes Bob (1991), Gilbert (1988), and Andrew (1992).

The PV budget analysis of Bob shows that the condensational heating within the vortex redistributes the PV, causing a PV sink in the upper part of the vortex and a PV source in the lower part. This tendency is compensated for largely, but not entirely, by the upward transport of high-PV air from the lower levels to the upper levels. The net effect contributes to the increase of the negative upper-level PV anomaly during the vortex intensification period. This result indicates that the diabatic heating effect plays a crucial role in the evolution of the PV field in hurricanes. It also suggests the importance of accurate representation of the heating profile in hurricane models.

It is shown that the negative upper-level PV anomaly is spread out by the upper-level outflow and the large-scale background flow. The impact of the spread of the negative upper PV anomaly to the storm is quantitatively evaluated by computing the nonlinear balanced flow associated with the PV perturbation. Notable contribution to the steering of the storm from the upper-level PV anomaly is found. The result supports the theory advanced by Wu and Emanuel concerning the effect of the upper negative PV anomaly on hurricane motion. This study also indicates the need of enhanced observation and accurate analysis and prediction in the upper troposphere in order to improve hurricane track forecasting.

Full access
Chun-Chieh Wu
and
Kerry A. Emanuel

Abstract

Most extant studies of tropical cyclone movement consider a barotropic vortex on a β plane. However, observations have shown that real tropical cyclones are strongly baroclinic, with broad anticyclones aloft. Also, the distribution of the large-scale potential vorticity gradient in the tropical atmosphere is very nonuniform. These properties may substantially influence the movement of such storms.

Note that the anticyclone above a hurricane will interact with the lower hurricane vortex and induce storm motion. Such interaction can be caused by both the direct effect of ambient vertical shear and the effect of vertical variation of the background potential vorticity gradient. In this paper, an attempt to isolate the effect of background vertical shear is made. The hurricane is represented in a two-layer quasigeostrophic model as a point source of mass and zero potential vorticity air in the upper layer, collocated with a point cyclone in the lower layer. The model is integrated by the method of contour dynamics and contour surgery.

The results show that Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclones should have a component of drift relative to the mean flow in a direction to the left of the background vertical shear. The effect of weak shear is also found to be at least as strong as the β effect, and the effect is maximized by a certain optimal ambient shear. The behavior of the model is sensitive to the thickness ratio of the two layers and is less sensitive to the ratio of the vortices' horizontal scale to the radius of deformation. Storms with stronger negative potential vorticity anomalies tend to exhibit more vortex drift.

Full access
Chun-Chieh Wu
and
Kerry A. Emanuel

Abstract

Flow fields from the model of Wu and Emanuel are presented. It is demonstrated that the interaction of background shear with a uniform source of low potential vorticity air at the storm top can produce many of the observed characteristics of hurricane outflow, including outflow jets. Our model is compared to other extant models of hurricane outflow.

Full access
Yu-An Chen
and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

The interaction between Typhoon Nepartak (2016) and the upper-tropospheric cold low (UTCL) is simulated to better understand the impact of UTCL on the structural and intensity change of tropical cyclones (TCs). An experiment without UTCL is also performed to highlight the quantitative impacts of UTCL. Furthermore, idealized sensitivity experiments are carried out to further investigate the specific TC–UTCL configurations leading to different interactions. It is shown that a TC interacting with the UTCL is associated with a more axisymmetric inner-core structure and an earlier rapid intensification. Three plausible mechanisms related to the causality between a UTCL and the intensity change of TC are addressed. First, the lower energy expenditure on outflow expansion leads to higher net heat energy and intensification rate. Second, the external eddy forcing reinforces the secondary circulation and promotes further TC development. Ultimately, the shear-induced downward and radial ventilation of the low-entropy air is unexpectedly reduced despite the presence of UTCL, leading to stronger inner-core convections in the upshear quadrants. In general, the TC–UTCL interaction process of Nepartak is favorable for TC intensification owing to the additional positive effect and the reduced negative effect. In addition, results from sensitivity experiments indicate that the most favorable interaction would occur when the UTCL is located to the north or northwest of the TC at a stable and proper distance of about one Rossby radius of deformation of the UTCL.

Restricted access