Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Chun-Chieh Wu x
  • Journal of Climate x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Cheng-Hsiang Chih
and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

The statistical relationships between tropical cyclones (TCs) with rapid intensification (RI) and upper-ocean heat content (UOHC) and sea surface temperature (SST) from 1998 to 2016 in the western North Pacific are examined. RI is computed based on four best track datasets in the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS). The statistical analysis shows that the UOHC and SST are higher in the RI duration than in non-RI duration. However, TCs with high UOHC/SST do not necessarily experience RI. In addition, the UOHC and SST are lower in the storm inner-core region due to storm-induced ocean cooling, and the UOHC reduces more significantly than the SST along the passages of TCs in the lower-latitude regions. Moreover, most of the RI (non-RI) duration is associated with the higher (lower) UOHC, but this is not the case for the SST pattern. Meanwhile, the TC intensification rate during the RI period does not appear to be sensitive to the SST, but shows statistically significant differences in the UOHC. In addition, there is a statistically significant increasing trend in the UOHC underlying TCs from 1998 to 2016. It is also noted that the percentages of the TCs with RI show different polynomial and linear trends based on different calculations of the RI events and RI durations. Finally, it is shown that there is no statistically significant difference in the UOHC, SST, and the percentage of RI among the five categories of ENSO events (i.e., strong El Niño, weak El Niño, neutral, weak La Niña, and strong La Niña).

Free access
Ruifen Zhan
,
Yuqing Wang
, and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

The impact of the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the East Indian Ocean (EIO) on the tropical cyclone (TC) frequency over the western North Pacific (WNP) and the involved physical mechanisms are examined using the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) Regional Atmospheric Model (iRAM) driven by the reanalysis and the observed SSTs. The model reproduces generally quite realistic climatic features of the WNP TC activity, including the interannual variability of the WNP TC genesis frequency, the geographical distributions of TC genesis and frequency of occurrence. In particular, the model reproduces the observed statistical (negatively correlated) relationship between the WNP TC frequency and the EIO SSTA, as recently studied by Zhan et al.

The experiments with artificially imposed SSTA in the EIO in the year 2004 with normal EIO SST and WNP TC activity confirm that the EIO SSTA does affect the TC genesis frequency in the entire genesis region over the WNP by significantly modulating both the western Pacific summer monsoon and the equatorial Kelvin wave activity over the western Pacific, two major large-scale dynamical controls of TC genesis over the WNP. Additional sensitivity experiments are performed for two extreme years: one (1994) with the highest and one (1998) with the lowest TC annual frequencies in the studied period. The results reveal that after the EIO SSTAs in the two extreme years are removed, the TC frequency in 1998 is close to the climatological mean, while the excessive TCs in 1994 are still simulated. The model results suggest that the warm EIO might be a major factor contributing to the unusually few TCs formed over the WNP in 1998, but the cold EIO seemed to contribute little to the excessive WNP TCs in 1994.

Full access
Chun-Chieh Wu
,
Ruifen Zhan
,
Yi Lu
, and
Yuqing Wang

Abstract

As synoptic storms, tropical cyclones (TCs) are highly nonlinear systems resulting from multiscale interactions. In particular, the genesis of TCs involves complex nonlinear processes, exhibiting strong internal variability in climate model simulations. This study attempts to examine such internal variability of dynamically downscaled TCs over the western North Pacific Ocean based on four simulations of 20 typhoon seasons (1982−2001) initialized on 4 successive days using the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) Regional Atmospheric Model (iRAM). The results show that on both seasonal and interannual time scales, the initial conditions significantly affect the downscaled TC activity, with the largest internal variability occurring in August on the seasonal time scale. The spreads between any of the individual simulations and the ensemble mean are comparable to and in some circumstances greater than the interannual variation of the observed TC frequency. The internal variability of the downscaled TC activity is found to be insensitive to the amplitude and the pattern of the initial perturbations. However, day-to-day model solutions are strongly affected by the internal variability. As a result, the development of nonlinear atmospheric instabilities significantly modulates the genesis and development of the TC-like vortices, leading to the large internal variability of the downscaled TC activity. In addition to the traditional initial value problem, criteria (in particular, threshold values) used in the TC detection contribute equally to the internal variability of the downscaled TCs in the simulations. Consistent with earlier studies, the results from this study also show that the ensemble mean provides the better downscaled information on seasonal and interannual frequencies of TC genesis and occurrence.

Full access
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
,
Ching-Hui Hung
,
An-Kai Lo
,
Chun-Chieh Wu
, and
Chih-Wen Hung

Abstract

By estimating the differences between the original and tropical cyclone (TC)-removed fields derived from the 40-yr (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) and NCEP–NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis, this study reveals that TCs contribute significantly (exceeding 50% in certain regions) to the seasonal mean and the intraseasonal and interannual variance of the 850-hPa vorticity along the TC tracks in the tropical western North Pacific. Similar effects on the precipitation are also seen, as presented by the examples located in Taiwan. While the low-frequency, large-scale circulation produces a clustering effect on TCs, the latter, which has a large positive vorticity and tends to occur in the positive vorticity background flow, significantly enhances the strength of the positive vorticity. The contribution from TCs, which is not offset by the synoptic systems with weak negative vorticity, can therefore leave marked footprints in the climate signal and variability. This effect is not removed by long-term averaging and low-pass filtering, which are often used to retrieve the climate perturbations. This study reveals that the climate variability, as it is defined, is not contributed to merely by the low-frequency large-scale fluctuations. Instead, the TC effect has to be taken into account to understand the climate variability in the tropical western North Pacific. Subsequently, the ensemble effect of TCs, at least in the statistical sense, has to be resolved in the climate model to obtain a better simulation of the climate variability in the TC-prone region, such as the tropical western North Pacific.

Full access