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  • Author or Editor: Craig F. Bohren x
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Clifton E. Dungey
Craig F. Bohren


The severest test of a theory of scattering by particles is how well it calculates scattering in the backward direction. The coupled-dipole method can be used for accurately calculating backscattering at 94 GHz by hexagonal ice crystals. Backscattering by columns is markedly different from that by plates, which indicates that it might be possible to infer size and shape distributions of ice crystals using recently developed millimeter wave radar.

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David R. Longtin
Craig F. Bohren
, and
Louis J. Battan


Calculations have been made of the radar backscattering, differential reflectivity, and circular depolarization ratio of large oblate spheroids composed of spongy ice. Results are compatible with laboratory measurements by earlier investigators. As expected, scattering of 10-cm radiation depends to an important extent on the size, water content, and axial ratios of the spheroids. Observations of differential reflectivities close to zero in hailstorms can be explained, as was done by V. N. Bringi and his associates, as resulting from the irregular shapes and tumbling of hailstones. But such observations could also be explained by size-distributed oblate spheroids with equivalent diameters greater than about 3.5 cm, falling with vertical symmetry axes.

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