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C-H. Moeng and D. A. Randall

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Laura D. Fowler and David A. Randall

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In the Colorado State University general circulation model, cumulus detrainment of cloud water and cloud ice has been, up to now, the only direct coupling between convective and large-scale condensation processes. This one-way interaction from the convective to the large-scale environment parameterizes, in a highly simplified manner, the growth of anvils spreading horizontally at the tops of narrow cumulus updrafts. The reverse interaction from the large-scale to the convective updrafts, through which large-scale cloud water and cloud ice can affect microphysical processes occurring in individual convective updrafts, is missing. In addition, the effects of compensating subsidence on cloud water and cloud ice are not taken into account.

A new parameterization of convection, called “EAUCUP,” has been developed, in which large-scale water vapor, cloud water, and cloud ice are allowed to enter the sides of the convective updrafts and can be lifted to the tops of the clouds. As the various water species are lifted, cloud microphysical processes take place, removing excess cloud water and cloud ice in the form of rain and snow. The partitioning of condensed vapor between cloud water and cloud ice, and between rain and snow, is based on temperature. The effects of compensating subsidence on the large-scale water vapor, cloud water, and cloud ice are computed separately. Convective rain is assumed to fall instantaneously to the surface. Three treatments of the convective snow are tested: 1) assuming that all snow is detrained at the tops of convective updrafts, 2) assuming that all snow falls outside of the updrafts and may evaporate, and 3) assuming that snow falls entirely inside the updrafts and melts to form rain.

Including entrainment of large-scale cloud water and cloud ice inside the updrafts, large-scale compensating subsidence unifies the parameterizations of large-scale cloud microphysics and convection, but have a lesser impact than the treatment of convective snow on the simulated climate. Differences between the three alternate treatments of convective snow are discussed. Emphasis is on the change in the convective, large-scale, and radiative tendencies of temperature, and change in the convective and large-scale tendencies of water vapor, cloud water, cloud ice, and snow. Below the stratiform anvils, the change in latent heating due to the change in both convective and large-scale heatings contributes a major part to the differences in diabatic heating among the three simulations. Above the stratiform anvils, differences in the diabatic heating between the three simulations result primarily because of differences in the longwave radiative cooling. In particular, detraining convective snow at the tops of convective updrafts yields a strong increase in the longwave radiative cooling associated with increased upper-tropospheric cloudiness. The simulated climate is wetter and colder when convective snow is detrained at the tops of the updrafts than when it is detrained on the sides of the updrafts or when it falls entirely inside the updrafts. This result highlights the importance of the treatment of the ice phase and associated precipitation in the convective cloud models used in cumulus parameterizations.

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C.-H. Moeng, P. P. Sullivan, M. F. Khairoutdinov, and D. A. Randall

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A large-domain large-eddy simulation of a tropical deep convection system is used as a benchmark to derive and test a mixed subgrid-scale (SGS) scheme for scalar and momentum fluxes in cloud-resolving models (CRMs). The benchmark simulation resolves a broad range of scales ranging from mesoscale organizations, through gravity waves and individual clouds, down to energy-containing turbulent eddies. A spectral analysis shows that the vertical-velocity kinetic energy peaks at scales from hundreds of meters in the lower cloud layer to several kilometers higher up; these scales are typical grid sizes of today’s CRMs. The analysis also shows that a significant portion of the scalar and momentum fluxes in the benchmark simulation are carried by motions smaller than several kilometers (i.e., smaller than a typical grid resolution of CRMs). The broad range of scales of the benchmark simulation is split into two components: filter scale (mimicking CRM resolvable scale) and subfilter scale (mimicking CRM SGS), using filter widths characteristic of a typical CRM grid spacing. The local relationship of the subfilter-scale fluxes to the filter-scale variables is examined. This leads to a mixed SGS scheme to represent the SGS fluxes of scalars and momentum in CRMs. A priori tests show that the mixed SGS scheme yields spatial distributions of subfilter-scale fluxes that correlate much better with those retrieved from the benchmark when compared with an eddy viscosity/diffusivity scheme that is commonly used in today’s CRMs.

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N. Sato, P.J. Sellers, D.A. Randall, E.K. Schneider, J. Shukla, J.L. Kinter III, Y-T. Hou, and E. Albertazzi

Abstract

The Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) of Sellers et al. was designed to simulate the interactions between the Earth's land surface and the atmosphere by treating the vegetation explicitly and realistically, thereby incorporating the biophysical controls on the exchanges of radiation, momentum, sensible and latent heat between the two systems. This paper describes the steps taken to implement SiB in a modified version of the National Meteorological Center's global spectral general circulation model (GCM) and explores the impact of the implementation on the simulated land surface fluxes and near-surface meteorological conditions. The coupled model (SiB-GCM) was used to produce summer and winter simulations. The same GCM was used with a conventional hydrological model (Ctl-GCM) to produce comparable “control” summer and winter simulations for comparison.

It was found that SiB-GCM produced a more realistic partitioning of energy at the land surface than Ctl-GCM. Generally, SiB-GCM produced more sensible heat flux and less latent heat flux over vegetated land than did Ctl-GCM and this resulted in a much deeper daytime planetary boundary layer and reduced precipitation rates over the continents in SiB-GCM. In the summer simulation, the 200 mb jet stream was slightly weakened in the SiB-GCM relative to the Ctl-GCM results and analyses made from observations.

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