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J-L. Redelsperger
,
D. B. Parsons
, and
F. Guichard

Abstract

This study investigates the recovery of the tropical atmosphere to moist conditions following the arrival of a dry intrusion observed during the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Program Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). A cloud-resolving model was used to quantify the processes leading to the moistening of the lower and middle troposphere. The model replicates the general recovery of the tropical atmosphere. The moisture field in the lower and middle troposphere recovered in large part from clouds repeatedly penetrating into the dry air mass. The moistening of the dry air mass in the simulation was due to lateral mixing on the edges of cloudy regions rather than mixing at cloud top. While the large-scale advection of moisture played a role in controlling the general evolution of moisture field, the large-scale thermal advection and radiation tend to directly control the evolution of the temperature field. The diurnal variations in these two terms were largely responsible for temperature variations above the boundary layer. Thermal inversions aloft were often found at the base of dry layers.

The study also investigates which factors control cloud-top height for convective clouds. In both the observations and simulation, the most common mode of convection was clouds extending to ∼4–6 km in height (often termed cumulus congestus clouds), although the period also exhibited a relatively wide range of cloud tops. The study found that cloud-top height often corresponded to the height of the thermal inversions. An examination of the buoyancy in the simulation suggested that entrainment of dry air decreased the parcel buoyancy making these inversions more efficient at controlling cloud top. Water loading effects in the simulation were generally secondary. Thus, there is a strong coupling between the dry air and thermal inversions as clear-air radiative processes associated with the vertical gradient of water vapor produce these inversions, while inversions and entrainment together limit the vertical extent of convection. One positive impact of dry air on convection occurred early in the simulation when clouds first penetrate the extremely dry air mass just above the boundary layer. At this time in the simulation, water vapor excesses within the rising parcels strongly contributed to the positive buoyancy of the clouds. In general, however, the impacts of dry air are to limit the vertical extent of convection and weaken the vertical updrafts.

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S. B. Trier
,
W. C. Skamarock
,
M. A. LeMone
,
D. B. Parsons
, and
D. P. Jorgensen

Abstract

In this study a numerical cloud model is used to simulate the three-dimensional evolution of an oceanic tropical squall line observed during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment and investigate the impact of small-scale physical processes including surface fluxes and ice microphysics on its structure and evolution. The observed squall line was oriented perpendicular to a moderately strong low-level jet. Salient features that are replicated by the model include an upshear-tilted leading convective region with multiple updraft maxima during its linear stage and the development of a 30-km scale midlevel vortex and associated transition of the line to a pronounced bow-shaped structure.

In this modeling approach, only surface flukes and stresses that differ from those of the undisturbed environment are included. This precludes an unrealistically large modification to the idealized quasi-steady base state and thus allows us to more easily isolate effects of internally generated surface fluxes and stresses on squall line evolution. Neither surface fluxes and stresses nor ice microphysics are necessary to simulate the salient features of the squall line. Their inclusion, however, results in differences in the timing of squall line evolution and greater realism of certain structural characteristics. Significant differences in the convectively induced cold pool strength occur between the early stages of simulations that included ice microphysics and a simulation that contained only warm-rain microphysical processes. The more realistic strength and depth of the cold pool in the simulations that contained ice processes is consistent with an updraft tilt that more closely resembles observations. The squall-line-induced surface fluxes also influence the strength but, more dramatically, the areal extent of the surface cold pool. For the majority of the 6-h simulation, this influence on the cold pool strength is felt only within several hundred meters of the surface. Significant impact of squall-line-induced surface, fluxes on the evolving deep convection at the leading edge of the cold pool is restricted to the later stages (t ≥ 4 h) of simulations and is most substantial in regions where the ground-relative winds are strong and the convectively induced cold pool is initially weak and shallow.

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