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  • Author or Editor: D. G. Gray x
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology x
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L. M. McMillin
,
D. G. Gray
,
H. F. Drahos
,
M. W. Chalfant
, and
C. S. Novak

Abstract

Root-mean-square differences between satellite and radiosondes for the past three years that TIROS-N has been operational are examined. They show a pronounced annual cycle because the statistics are dominated by the Northern Hemisphere. Differences are smaller in the summer and are larger in the winter, but they reflect a change in the effect of location differences as well as retrieval error. In addition to the annual cycle, there is an increase in retrieval accuracy with time. For the partly cloudy retrievals, the increase approaches 1.3 K for some levels.

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H. W. Baynton
,
R. J. Serafin
,
C. L. Frush
,
G. R. Gray
,
P. V. Hobbs
,
R. A. Houze Jr
, and
J. D. Locatelli

Abstract

Color displays of the velocities of precipitation particles detected with a C-band Doppler radar in wide-spread cyclonic storms provide a variety of real-time information on the atmospheric wind field.Vertical profiles of wind speed and direction indicated by the real-time color displays agree well withrawinsonde measurements. Veering winds (or warm advection) produce a striking S-shaped pattern onthe color display and backing winds (or cold advection) produce a backward S. A maximum in the verticalprofile of wind speed is indicated by a pair of concentric colored rings, one upwind and one downwind ofthe radar. Vertically sloping velocity maxima are indicated by asymmetries in the color displays, as areconfluent and difluent winds. Divergence and convergence computed from the real-time color displays areof reasonable magnitude.

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