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  • Author or Editor: Dev Niyogi x
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Paul E. Schmid
and
Dev Niyogi

Abstract

This study introduces a methodology to simulate how spatially heterogeneous urban aerosols modify a precipitating thunderstorm in a numerical weather model. An air quality model (simple photochemical model) was coupled with a high-resolution mesoscale weather model (the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and generated variable urban cloud condensation nuclei values consistent with those measured in previous field studies. The coupled emission model was used to simulate the passage of a synoptic low pressure system with embedded thunderstorms over an idealized city using the real-atmosphere idealized land surface (RAIL) method. Experiments were conducted to calibrate the surface formation of cloud-nucleating aerosols in an urban environment and then to assess the specific response of different aerosol loads on simulated precipitation. The model response to aerosol heterogeneity reduced the total precipitation but significantly increased simulated rain rates. High-aerosol-loading scenarios produced a peak city-edge precipitation rate of over 100 mm h−1 greater than a control containing only a city land surface with no emissions. In comparing the control with a scenario with no city, it was seen that the land surface effect produced a rain rate increase of up to 20 mm h−1. Results indicate, within the limits of the model framework, that the urban rainfall modification is a combination of land heterogeneity causing the dynamical lifting of the air mass and aerosols, with rainfall enhancement being maintained and synergistically increased because of the aerosol indirect effects on cloud properties.

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Dev Niyogi
,
Kiran Alapaty
,
Sethu Raman
, and
Fei Chen

Abstract

Current land surface schemes used for mesoscale weather forecast models use the Jarvis-type stomatal resistance formulations for representing the vegetation transpiration processes. The Jarvis scheme, however, despite its robustness, needs significant tuning of the hypothetical minimum-stomatal resistance term to simulate surface energy balances. In this study, the authors show that the Jarvis-type stomatal resistance/transpiration model can be efficiently replaced in a coupled land–atmosphere model with a photosynthesis-based scheme and still achieve dynamically consistent results. To demonstrate this transformative potential, the authors developed and coupled a photosynthesis, gas exchange–based surface evapotranspiration model (GEM) as a land surface scheme for mesoscale weather forecasting model applications. The GEM was dynamically coupled with a prognostic soil moisture–soil temperature model and an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model. This coupled system was then validated over different natural surfaces including temperate C4 vegetation (prairie grass and corn field) and C3 vegetation (soybean, fallow, and hardwood forest) under contrasting surface conditions (such as different soil moisture and leaf area index). Results indicated that the coupled model was able to realistically simulate the surface fluxes and the boundary layer characteristics over different landscapes. The surface energy fluxes, particularly for latent heat, are typically within 10%–20% of the observations without any tuning of the biophysical–vegetation characteristics, and the response to the changes in the surface characteristics is consistent with observations and theory. This result shows that photosynthesis-based transpiration/stomatal resistance models such as GEM, despite various complexities, can be applied for mesoscale weather forecasting applications. Future efforts for understanding the different scaling parameterizations and for correcting errors for low soil moisture and/or wilting vegetation conditions are necessary to improve model performance. Results from this study suggest that the GEM approach using the photosynthesis-based soil vegetation atmosphere transfer (SVAT) scheme is thus superior to the Jarvis-based approaches. Currently GEM is being implemented within the Noah land surface model for the community Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Advanced Research Version Modeling System (ARW) and the NCAR high-resolution land data assimilation system (HRLDAS), and validation is under way.

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Vinodkumar
,
A. Chandrasekar
,
K. Alapaty
, and
Dev Niyogi

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of the Flux-Adjusting Surface Data Assimilation System (FASDAS) and the four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) using analysis nudging on the simulation of a monsoon depression that formed over India during the 1999 Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) field campaign. FASDAS allows for the indirect assimilation/adjustment of soil moisture and soil temperature together with continuous direct surface data assimilation of surface temperature and surface humidity. Two additional numerical experiments [control (CTRL) and FDDA] were conducted to assess the relative improvements to the simulation by FASDAS. To improve the initial analysis for the FDDA and the surface data assimilation (SDA) runs, the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) simulation utilized the humidity and temperature profiles from the NOAA Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), surface winds from the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT), and the conventional meteorological upper-air (radiosonde/rawinsonde, pilot balloon) and surface data. The results from the three simulations are compared with each other as well as with NCEP–NCAR reanalysis, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and the special buoy, ship, and radiosonde observations available during BOBMEX. As compared with the CTRL, the FASDAS and the FDDA runs resulted in (i) a relatively better-developed cyclonic circulation and (ii) a larger spatial area as well as increased rainfall amounts over the coastal regions after landfall. The FASDAS run showed a consistently improved model simulation performance in terms of reduced rms errors of surface humidity and surface temperature as compared with the CTRL and the FDDA runs.

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Dev Niyogi
,
Sajad Jamshidi
,
David Smith
, and
Olivia Kellner

Abstract

An intercomparison of multiresolution evapotranspiration (ET) datasets with reference to ground-based measurements for the development of regional reference (ETref) and actual (ET a ) evapotranspiration maps over Indiana is presented. A representative ETref equation for the state is identified by evaluating 10 years of in situ measurements (2009–19). A statewide ETref climatology is developed using the ETref equation and high-resolution surface meteorological data from the gridded surface meteorological dataset (gridMET). For ET a analyses, MODIS, Simplified Surface Energy Balance Operational dataset (SSEBop), Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) (versions 3.3a and 3.3b), and NLDAS (Noah and VIC) datasets are evaluated using AmeriFlux data. Thirty years of rainfall data from Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station Data Rainfall (CHIRPS) are used with the ET datasets to develop effective precipitation fields. Results show that the standardized Penman–Monteith equation performs as the best ETref equation with median symmetric accuracy (MSA) of 0.37, Taylor’s skill score (TSC) of 0.89, and r 2 = 0.83. The analysis shows that the gridMET dataset overestimates wind speed and requires adjustment before a series of statewide ETref climatology maps are generated (1990–2020). For ET a , the MODIS and GLEAM (3.3b) datasets outperform the rest, with MSA = 0.5, TSC = 0.8, and r 2 = 0.8. The state ET a dataset is generated using all MODIS data from 2003 and blending the MODIS data with GLEAM (3.3b) to cover data unavailability. Using the top-performing datasets, annual ETref for Indiana is computed as 1110 mm, ET a as 708 mm, and precipitation as 1091 mm. A marginal increasing climatological trend is found for Indiana’s ETref (0.013 mm yr−1) while ET a is found to be relatively stable. The state’s water availability, defined as rainfall minus ET a , has remained positive and stable at 0.99 mm day−1 (annual magnitude of +3820 mm).

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Anil Kumar
,
Fei Chen
,
Michael Barlage
,
Michael B. Ek
, and
Dev Niyogi

Abstract

The impact of 8-day-averaged data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor—namely, the 1-km leaf area index, absorbed photosynthetic radiation, and land-use data—is investigated for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for regional weather prediction. These high-resolution, near-real-time MODIS data are hypothesized to enhance the representation of land–atmosphere interactions and to potentially improve the WRF model forecast skill for temperature, surface moisture, surface fluxes, and soil temperature. To test this hypothesis, the impact of using MODIS-based land surface data on surface energy and water budgets was assessed within the “Noah” land surface model with two different canopy-resistance schemes. An ensemble of six model experiments was conducted using the WRF model for a typical summertime episode over the U.S. southern Great Plains that occurred during the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) field experiment. The six model experiments were statistically analyzed and showed some degree of improvement in surface latent heat flux and sensible heat flux, as well as surface temperature and moisture, after land use, leaf area index, and green vegetation fraction data were replaced by remotely sensed data. There was also an improvement in the WRF-simulated temperature and boundary layer moisture with MODIS data in comparison with the default U.S. Geological Survey land-use and leaf area index inputs. Overall, analysis suggests that recalibration and improvements to both the input data and the land model help to improve estimation of surface and soil parameters and boundary layer moisture and led to improvement in simulating convection in WRF runs. Incorporating updated land conditions provided the most notable improvements, and the mesoscale model performance could be further enhanced when improved land surface schemes become available.

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Kiran Alapaty
,
Dev Niyogi
,
Fei Chen
,
Patrick Pyle
,
Anantharman Chandrasekar
, and
Nelson Seaman

Abstract

The flux-adjusting surface data assimilation system (FASDAS) is developed to provide continuous adjustments for initial soil moisture and temperature and for surface air temperature and water vapor mixing ratio for mesoscale models. In the FASDAS approach, surface air temperature and water vapor mixing ratio are directly assimilated by using the analyzed surface observations. Then, the difference between the analyzed surface observations and model predictions of surface layer temperature and water vapor mixing ratio are converted into respective heat fluxes, referred to as adjustment heat fluxes of sensible and latent heat. These adjustment heat fluxes are then used in the prognostic equations for soil temperature and moisture via indirect assimilation in the form of several new adjustment evaporative fluxes. Thus, simulated surface fluxes for the subsequent model time step are affected such that the predicted surface air temperature and water vapor mixing ratio conform more closely to observations. The simultaneous application of indirect and direct data assimilation maintains greater consistency between the soil temperature–moisture and the surface layer mass-field variables. The FASDAS is coupled to a land surface submodel in a three-dimensional mesoscale model and tests are performed for a 10-day period with three one-way nested domains. The FASDAS is applied in the analysis nudging mode for two coarse-resolution nested domains and in the observational nudging mode for a fine-resolution nested domain. Further, the effects of FASDAS on two different initial specifications of a three-dimensional soil moisture field are also studied. Results indicate that the FASDAS consistently improved the accuracy of the model simulations.

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Krishna K. Osuri
,
U. C. Mohanty
,
A. Routray
,
M. Mohapatra
, and
Dev Niyogi

Abstract

The performance of the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW) model in real-time prediction of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the north Indian Ocean (NIO) at 27-km resolution is evaluated on the basis of 100 forecasts for 17 TCs during 2007–11. The analyses are carried out with respect to 1) basins of formation, 2) straight-moving and recurving TCs, 3) TC intensity at model initialization, and 4) season of occurrence. The impact of high resolution (18 and 9 km) on TC prediction is also studied. Model results at 27-km resolution indicate that the mean track forecast errors (skill with reference to persistence track) over the NIO were found to vary from 113 to 375 km (7%–51%) for a 12–72-h forecast. The model showed a right/eastward and slow bias in TC movement. The model is more skillful in track prediction when initialized at the intensity stage of severe cyclone or greater than at the intensity stage of cyclone or lower. The model is more efficient in predicting landfall location than landfall time. The higher-resolution (18 and 9 km) predictions yield an improvement in mean track error for the NIO Basin by about 4%–10% and 8%–24%, respectively. The 9-km predictions were found to be more accurate for recurving TC track predictions by ~13%–28% and 5%–15% when compared with the 27- and 18-km runs, respectively. The 9-km runs improve the intensity prediction by 15%–40% over the 18-km predictions. This study highlights the capabilities of the operational ARW model over the Indian monsoon region and the continued need for operational forecasts from high-resolution models.

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Quang-Van Doan
,
Shun Kobayashi
,
Hiroyuki Kusaka
,
Fei Chen
,
Cenlin He
, and
Dev Niyogi

Abstract

This study contributes to the body of current knowledge about the urban effect on extreme precipitation (EP) by investigating the city–EP interaction over Lagos, Nigeria. This is a unique, first-time study that adds a “missing piece” of this information about the African continent to the comprehensive global urban precipitation “puzzle.” The convection-permitting Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is employed within an ensemble simulation framework using combinations of different physical schemes and boundary/initial conditions to detect the urban signal on an extreme rainfall event that occurred on 30 May 2006. WRF simulations are verified against satellite-estimated and in situ observations, and the results from the best-performing ensemble members are used for analysis. The results show that the control simulation with urban representation generated 20%–30% more rainfall over the urban area than the nonurban sensitivity simulation, in which the city is replaced by forest. Physical mechanisms behind the differences were revealed. We found that the urbanization in Lagos reduced evapotranspiration, resulting in the increase of sensible heating (by 75 W m−2). This further enhances the urban heat-island effect (+1.5 K of air surface temperature), facilitating horizontal convergence and boosting daytime sea breeze. As a result, more moisture is transported from the southern sea area to inland areas; the moisture then converges over Lagos city, creating favorable conditions for enhancing convection and extreme-rainfall-generating processes.

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Shoobhangi Tyagi
,
Sandeep Sahany
,
Dharmendra Saraswat
,
Saroj Kanta Mishra
,
Amlendu Dubey
, and
Dev Niyogi

Abstract

The 2015 Paris Agreement outlined limiting global warming to 1.5°C relative to the preindustrial levels, necessitating the development of regional climate adaptation strategies. This requires a comprehensive understanding of how the 1.5°C rise in global temperature would translate across different regions. However, its implications on critical agricultural components, particularly blue and green water, remains understudied. This study investigates these changes using a rice-growing semiarid region in central India. The aim of this study is to initiate a discussion on the regional response of blue–green water at specific warming levels. Using different global climate models (GCMs) and shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs), the study estimated the time frame for reaching the 1.5°C warming level and subsequently investigated changes in regional precipitation, temperature, surface runoff, and blue–green water. The results reveal projected reductions in precipitation and surface runoff by approximately 5%–15% and 10%–35%, respectively, along with decrease in green and blue water by approximately 12%–1% and 40%–10%, respectively, across different GCMs and SSPs. These findings highlight 1) the susceptibility of blue–green water to the 1.5°C global warming level, 2) the narrow time frame available for the region to develop the adaptive strategies, 3) the influence of warm semiarid climate on the blue–green water dynamics, and 4) the uncertainty associated with regional assessment of a specific warming level. This study provides new insights for shaping food security strategies over highly vulnerable semiarid regions and is expected to serve as a reference for other regional blue/green water assessment studies.

Significance Statement

This study helps to drive home the message that a global agreement to limit the warming level to 1.5°C does not mean local-scale temperature (and associated hydrological) impacts would be limited to those levels. The regional changes can be more exaggerated and uncertain, and they also depend on the choice of the climate model and region. Therefore, local-scale vulnerability assessments must focus on the multidimensional assessment of a 1.5°C warmer world involving different climate models, climate-sensitive components, and regions. This information is relevant for managing vulnerable agricultural systems. This study is among the first to investigate the critical agricultural components such as the blue–green water over a semiarid Indian region, and the findings and methodology are expected to be transferable for performing regional-scale assessments elsewhere.

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Dev Niyogi
,
Patrick Pyle
,
Ming Lei
,
S. Pal Arya
,
Chandra M. Kishtawal
,
Marshall Shepherd
,
Fei Chen
, and
Brian Wolfe

Abstract

A radar-based climatology of 91 unique summertime (May 2000–August 2009) thunderstorm cases was examined over the Indianapolis, Indiana, urban area. The study hypothesis is that urban regions alter the intensity and composition/structure of approaching thunderstorms because of land surface heterogeneity. Storm characteristics were studied over the Indianapolis region and four peripheral rural counties approximately 120 km away from the urban center. Using radar imagery, the time of event, changes in storm structure (splitting, initiation, intensification, and dissipation), synoptic setting, orientation, and motion were studied. It was found that more than 60% of storms changed structure over the Indianapolis area as compared with only 25% over the rural regions. Furthermore, daytime convection was most likely to be affected, with 71% of storms changing structure as compared with only 42% at night. Analysis of radar imagery indicated that storms split closer to the upwind urban region and merge again downwind. Thus, a larger portion of small storms (50–200 km2) and large storms (>1500 km2) were found downwind of the urban region, whereas midsized storms (200–1500 km) dominated the upwind region. A case study of a typical storm on 13 June 2005 was examined using available observations and the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5), version 3.7.2. Two simulations were performed with and without the urban land use/Indianapolis region in the fourth domain (1.33-km resolution). The storm of interest could not be simulated without the urban area. Results indicate that removing the Indianapolis urban region caused distinct differences in the regional convergence and convection as well as in simulated base reflectivity, surface energy balance (through sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and virtual potential temperature changes), and boundary layer structure. Study results indicate that the urban area has a strong climatological influence on regional thunderstorms.

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