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Nathaniel S. Winstead
Todd D. Sikora
Donald R. Thompson
, and
Pierre D. Mourad


Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of oceans and the Great Lakes have provided a highly detailed means of observing atmospheric boundary layer phenomena such as convection, land breezes, and internal gravity waves. This is possible because the backscattered radiation detected by SAR can be dominated by scattering from wind-driven capillary waves whose spatial variation is visible as patterns in the SAR images. In this paper, we present two case studies in which SAR images taken over Lake Superior demonstrate spatial variability in the surface wind stress created over the lake by coincident gravity waves and boundary layer convection during cold air outbreaks. Of particular interest is the direct influence of the gravity waves on the lake-surface stress despite the intervening highly convective atmosphere as well as the detailed view of the fetch dependence of that stress.

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