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  • Author or Editor: Dusan Zrnic x
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Dúsan S. Zrnić

Abstract

The concept of the polarimetric scattering matrix applicable to hydrometeors is reviewed to indicate the total number of measurands that is possible from a radar system with two orthogonal linear polarizations. It is shown how to obtain this complete set of polarimetric measurands together with Doppler spectral moments through a single receiver by proper choice of polarization in a transmit-receive sequence pair.

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Dusan Zrnić
and
David Schvartzman

Abstract

We review cubic phase codes for mitigating ambiguities in range and velocity before introducing two specific codes. The two have periodicities of 5 and 7 samples for both the transmitted and the modulation code sequences. The short periods are suitable for generating codes of arbitrary length starting with about 15. We abbreviate the two codes with L5 and L7 and describe generation of the codes starting with kernels (i.e., minimum length sequences that repeat to generate the codes of desired lengths). The L5 modulation code produces 5 spectral replicas of the coded signal and the L7 produces 7. We apply the L7 code to a sinusoid and reveal spectra of the modulated signals from several ambiguous range intervals. Through simulation, we show application to weatherlike signals and construct examples whereby two weather signals and ground clutter are overlaid. Using theory, we define the operating region of the codes in the signal parameter space. The region covers a wide range of overlaid returned powers and spectrum widths; it is obtained from simulations involving the L codes and the SZ(8/64) code. The technique is effective in distinguishing the returns from two trip regions separated by no more than L − 2 ambiguous range intervals and reconstructing the corresponding spectral moments. The L5 and L7 codes protect from trip returns up to the fifth and seventh, making them suitable for short-wavelength (3 and 5 cm) radars as their PRTs must be relatively short to accommodate the expected spread of velocities in storms.

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Alexander Ryzhkov
and
Dusan Zrnic

Abstract

Effects of beamfilling nonuniformities on the differential phase and rainfall estimation that use specific differential phase are examined. Two physical models are considered: an isolated rain cell with azimuthal dimensions comparable to the beamwidth and a sharp rain boundary approximating a squall line. The model results are compared to observations. An extension of the analysis to include observations of the melting layer is made. From this analysis emerges an interpretation of the radial profile of differential phase that varies from previous explanations. The current interpretation might be favored due to its simplicity and reliance on accepted physical properties of the melting layer.

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Svetlana Bachmann
and
Dusan Zrnić

Abstract

Echoes in clear air from two types of biological scatterers mixed within the resolution volumes over a large region, observed with S-band dual polarization radar, are presented. This case occurred in the evening of 7 September 2004, at the beginning of the fall migrating season of song birds (passerines). Polarimetric spectral analyses are used for distinguishing birds and insects in multimodal spectra. Spatial continuity of spectral peaks shows clear separation of insect (wind) speeds from bird speeds. Spectral densities of polarimetric variables exhibit vastly different values at speeds corresponding to insects than from those of birds, allowing the separation of the two scatterer types. Therefore, the statistics of the intrinsic polarimetric variables computed from spectral densities are unbiased and closer to the ensemble statistics of the echo type than the ones obtained with standard processing techniques. A novel display of the spectral densities versus azimuth, termed spectral velocity–azimuth display (SVAD), is constructed for easier viewing and interpretation of the velocity field. Analyses of the SVADs reveal the mean velocities and the directions of the two types of scatterers.

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Valery Melnikov
and
Dusan S. Zrnić

Abstract

It is shown that the NEXRAD weather radar with enhanced detectability is capable of observing the evolution of convective thermals. The fields of radar differential reflectivity show that the upper parts of the thermals are observable due to Bragg scatter, whereas scattering from insects dominates in the lower parts. The thermal-top rise rate is between 1.5 and 3.7 m s−1 in the analyzed case. Radar observations of thermals also enable estimations of their maximum heights, horizontal sizes, and the turbulent dissipation rate within each thermal. These attributes characterize the intensity of convection.

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Valery M. Melnikov
and
Dusan S. Zrnić

Abstract

Herein are proposed novel estimators of differential reflectivity Z DR and correlation coefficient ρ hv between horizontally and vertically polarized echoes. The estimators use autocorrelations and cross correlations of the returned signals to avoid bias by omnipresent but varying white noise. These estimators are considered for implementation on the future polarimetric Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) network. On the current network the reflectivity factor is measured at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) as low as 2 dB and the same threshold is expected to hold for the polarimetric variables. At such low SNR and all the way up to SNR = 15 dB, the conventional estimators of differential reflectivity and the copolar correlation coefficient are prone to errors due to uncertainties in noise levels caused by instability of radar devices, thermal radiations of precipitation and the ground, and wideband radiation of electrically active clouds. Noise variations at SNR less than 15 dB can bias the estimates beyond apparatus accuracy. For brevity the authors refer to the estimators of Z DR and ρ hv free from noise bias as the “1-lag estimators” because these are derived from 1-lag correlations. The estimators are quite robust and the only weak assumption for validity is that spectral widths of signals from vertically and horizontally polarized returns are equal. This assumption is verified on radar data. Radar observations demonstrate the validity of these estimator and lower sensitivity to interference signals than the conventional algorithms.

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Dušan S. Zrnić
and
Alexander V. Ryzhkov

Abstract

Chaff contaminates estimates of precipitation amounts; hence, it is important to remove (or censor) its presence from the fields of radar reflectivity. It is demonstrated that efficient and direct identification of chaff is possible with a polarimetric radar. Specifically considered are the horizontal and vertical polarization basis and covariances of corresponding returned signals. Pertinent polarimetric variables are the copolar correlation coefficient, differential reflectivity, and the linear depolarization ratio. Two models are used to compute the expected values of these variables. In one, chaff is approximated with a Hertzian dipole and, in the other, with a thin wire antenna. In these models chaff is assumed to have a uniform distribution of flutter angles (angle between the horizontal plane and chaff axis). The two models produce nearly equivalent results. Also shown are polarimetric signatures of chaff observed in the presence of precipitation. Inferences about chaff's orientation are made from comparisons between measured and observed differential reflectivity and the cross-correlation coefficient.

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Thomas B. Sanford
and
Dus̆an S. Zrnić
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Alexander V. Ryzhkov
and
Dusan S. Zrnic

Abstract

Rainfall estimation from specific differential phases in meteorological situations with significant anomalous propagation (AP) is discussed. It is shown that the correlation coefficient between horizontally and vertically polarized backscatter signals and local variability of the total differential phase can be good identifiers of ground clutter–contaminated data. Further, it is suggested how to estimate rainfall in regions of ground clutter caused by AP.

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Sebastián M. Torres
and
Dušan S. Zrnić

Abstract

A method for estimation of spectral moments on pulsed weather radars is presented. This scheme operates on oversampled echoes in range; that is, samples of in-phase and quadrature-phase components are collected at a rate several times larger than the reciprocal of the transmitted pulse length. The spectral moments are estimated by suitably combining weighted averages of these oversampled signals in range with usual processing of samples (spaced at the pulse repetition time) at a fixed range location. The weights in range are derived from a whitening transformation; hence, the oversampled signals become uncorrelated and, consequently, the variance of the estimates decreases significantly. Because the estimate errors are inversely proportional to the volume scanning times, it follows that storms can be surveyed much faster than is possible with current processing methods, or equivalently, for the current volume scanning time, accuracy of the estimates can be greatly improved. This significant improvement is achievable at large signal-to-noise ratios.

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