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B. Barkstrom
,
E. Harrison
,
G. Smith
,
R. Green
,
J. Kibler
,
R. Cess
, and
the ERBE Science Team‡

This paper describes the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data products being made available to the community. The Science Team used ten validation criteria to judge the acceptability of the data for archival. We list these criteria and present uncertainty estimates based on them for four typical data products. A brief description of the radiation budget for April 1985 from the combined data of ERBE and NOAA-9 concludes this paper.

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Bruce A. Wielicki
,
Bruce R. Barkstrom
,
Edwin F. Harrison
,
Robert B. Lee III
,
G. Louis Smith
, and
John E. Cooper

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation to examine the role of cloud/radiation feedback in the Earth's climate system. The CERES broadband scanning radiometers are an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers. The CERES instruments will fly on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites starting in 1998 and extending over at least 15 years. The CERES science investigations will provide data to extend the ERBE climate record of top-of-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes. CERES will also combine simultaneous cloud property data derived using EOS narrowband imagers to provide a consistent set of cloud/radiation data, including SW and LW radiative fluxes at the surface and at several selected levels within the atmosphere. CERES data are expected to provide top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with a factor of 2 to 3 less error than the ERBE data. Estimates of radiative fluxes at the surface and especially within the atmosphere will be a much greater challenge but should also show significant improvements over current capabilities.

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S. I. Bohnenstengel
,
S. E. Belcher
,
A. Aiken
,
J. D. Allan
,
G. Allen
,
A. Bacak
,
T. J. Bannan
,
J. F. Barlow
,
D. C. S. Beddows
,
W. J. Bloss
,
A. M. Booth
,
C. Chemel
,
O. Coceal
,
C. F. Di Marco
,
M. K. Dubey
,
K. H. Faloon
,
Z. L. Fleming
,
M. Furger
,
J. K. Gietl
,
R. R. Graves
,
D. C. Green
,
C. S. B. Grimmond
,
C. H. Halios
,
J. F. Hamilton
,
R. M. Harrison
,
M. R. Heal
,
D. E. Heard
,
C. Helfter
,
S. C. Herndon
,
R. E. Holmes
,
J. R. Hopkins
,
A. M. Jones
,
F. J. Kelly
,
S. Kotthaus
,
B. Langford
,
J. D. Lee
,
R. J. Leigh
,
A. C. Lewis
,
R. T. Lidster
,
F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker
,
J. B. McQuaid
,
C. Mohr
,
P. S. Monks
,
E. Nemitz
,
N. L. Ng
,
C. J. Percival
,
A. S. H. Prévôt
,
H. M. A. Ricketts
,
R. Sokhi
,
D. Stone
,
J. A. Thornton
,
A. H. Tremper
,
A. C. Valach
,
S. Visser
,
L. K. Whalley
,
L. R. Williams
,
L. Xu
,
D. E. Young
, and
P. Zotter

Abstract

Air quality and heat are strong health drivers, and their accurate assessment and forecast are important in densely populated urban areas. However, the sources and processes leading to high concentrations of main pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particulate matter, in complex urban areas are not fully understood, limiting our ability to forecast air quality accurately. This paper introduces the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo; www.clearflo.ac.uk) project’s interdisciplinary approach to investigate the processes leading to poor air quality and elevated temperatures.

Within ClearfLo, a large multi-institutional project funded by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), integrated measurements of meteorology and gaseous, and particulate composition/loading within the atmosphere of London, United Kingdom, were undertaken to understand the processes underlying poor air quality. Long-term measurement infrastructure installed at multiple levels (street and elevated), and at urban background, curbside, and rural locations were complemented with high-resolution numerical atmospheric simulations. Combining these (measurement–modeling) enhances understanding of seasonal variations in meteorology and composition together with the controlling processes. Two intensive observation periods (winter 2012 and the Summer Olympics of 2012) focus upon the vertical structure and evolution of the urban boundary layer; chemical controls on nitrogen dioxide and ozone production—in particular, the role of volatile organic compounds; and processes controlling the evolution, size, distribution, and composition of particulate matter. The paper shows that mixing heights are deeper over London than in the rural surroundings and that the seasonality of the urban boundary layer evolution controls when concentrations peak. The composition also reflects the seasonality of sources such as domestic burning and biogenic emissions.

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