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  • Author or Editor: Edmond W. Holroyd III x
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Edmond W. Holroyd III


Satellite photographs of the TIROS and ESSA series were examined for the presence and dimensions of lake-effect clouds over the Great Lakes and Gulf of St. Lawrence. It was found that nearly all lake-effect clouds occurred when the 850-mb temperature was more than 13C colder than the lake surface temperature. The clouds were organized into parallel bands resembling but having larger dimensions than cloud streets. Enlarged cloud bands were found which were 2.5 times larger than normal lake-effect bands. These enlarged lake storms had preferred origins and appear to be generated by frictional differences between land and water, by the geometry of the body of warm water with respect to the prevailing wind, and by certain urban influences.

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B. F. Ryan, E. R. Wishart, and Edmond W. Holroyd III


The mass of columnar ice crystals between −5C and −9C has been measured as a function of time. It is shown that the measured growth rates are not markedly different from the empirical formula proposed by Hindman and Johnson. However, during the first 3 min of growth the parametric form of the axial dimensions can be adequately described by a linear function of time rather than a power law.

Over the same temperature range the bulk density/temperature curve deduced by Fukuta is valid for time periods at least as long as 3 min and for a wide variety of ice crystal concentrations.

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