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  • Author or Editor: Elford G. Astling x
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Yubao Liu, Thomas T. Warner, Elford G. Astling, James F. Bowers, Christopher A. Davis, Scott F. Halvorson, Daran L. Rife, Rong-Shyang Sheu, Scott P. Swerdlin, and Mei Xu


This study builds upon previous efforts to document the performance of the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command’s Four-Dimensional Weather Modeling System using conventional metrics. Winds, temperature, and specific humidity were verified for almost 15 000 forecasts at five U.S. Army test ranges using near-surface mesonet data. The primary objective was to use conventional metrics to characterize the degree to which forecast accuracy varies from range to range, within the diurnal cycle, with elapsed forecast time, and among the seasons. It was found that there are large interrange differences in forecast error, with larger errors typically associated with the ranges located near complex orography. Similarly, significant variations in accuracy were noted for different times in the diurnal cycle, but the diurnal dependency varied greatly among the ranges. Factor of 2 differences in accuracy were also found across the seasons.

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