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Paola Salio
,
Hernán Bechis
,
Bruno Z. Ribeiro
,
Ernani de Lima Nascimento
,
Vito Galligani
,
Fernando Garcia
,
Lucas Alvarenga
,
Maria de los Milagros Alvarez Imaz
,
Daiana Marlene Baissac
,
María Florencia Barle
,
Cristian Bastías-Curivil
,
Marcos Benedicto
,
Maite Cancelada
,
Izabelly Carvalho da Costa
,
Daniela D’Amen
,
Ramon de Elia
,
David Eduardo Diaz
,
Anthony Duarte Páez
,
Sergio González
,
Vitor Goede
,
Julián Goñi
,
Agustín Granato
,
Murilo Machado Lopes
,
Matias Mederos
,
Matias Menalled
,
Romina Mezher
,
Eduardo José Mingo Vega
,
María Gabriela Nicora
,
Lucía Pini
,
Roberto Rondanelli
,
Juan Jose Ruiz
,
Nestor Santayana
,
Laís Santos
,
Guilherme Schild
,
Inés Simone
,
Raul Valenzuela
,
Yasmin Romina Velazquez
,
Luciano Vidal
, and
Constanza Inés Villagrán Asiares

Abstract

Despite Southern South America being recognized as a hotspot for deep convective storms, little is known about the socio-environmental impacts of high impact weather (HIW) events. Although there have been past efforts to collect severe weather reports in the region, they have been highly fragmented among and within countries, sharing no common protocol, and limited to a particular phenomenon, a very specific region or a short period of time.

There is a pressing need for a more comprehensive understanding of the present risks linked to HIW events, specifically deep convective storms, on a global scale as well as their variability and potential future evolution in the context of climate change. A database of high-quality and systematic HIW reports and associated socio-environmental impacts is essential to understand the regional atmospheric conditions leading to hazardous weather, to quantify its predictability and to build robust early warning systems.

To tackle this problem and following successful initiatives in other regions of the world, researchers, national weather service members, and weather enthusiasts from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay have embarked on a multi-national collaboration to generate a standardized database of reports of HIW events principally associated with convective storms and their socio-environmental impacts in South America. The goal of this paper is to describe this unprecedented initiative over the region, to summarize first results and to discuss the potential applications of this collaboration.

Open access
Stephen W. Nesbitt
,
Paola V. Salio
,
Eldo Ávila
,
Phillip Bitzer
,
Lawrence Carey
,
V. Chandrasekar
,
Wiebke Deierling
,
Francina Dominguez
,
Maria Eugenia Dillon
,
C. Marcelo Garcia
,
David Gochis
,
Steven Goodman
,
Deanna A. Hence
,
Karen A. Kosiba
,
Matthew R. Kumjian
,
Timothy Lang
,
Lorena Medina Luna
,
James Marquis
,
Robert Marshall
,
Lynn A. McMurdie
,
Ernani de Lima Nascimento
,
Kristen L. Rasmussen
,
Rita Roberts
,
Angela K. Rowe
,
Juan José Ruiz
,
Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas
,
A. Celeste Saulo
,
Russ S. Schumacher
,
Yanina Garcia Skabar
,
Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado
,
Robert J. Trapp
,
Adam C. Varble
,
James Wilson
,
Joshua Wurman
,
Edward J. Zipser
,
Ivan Arias
,
Hernán Bechis
, and
Maxwell A. Grover

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the experimental design, execution, education and public outreach, data collection, and initial scientific results from the Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign. RELAMPAGO was a major field campaign conducted in the Córdoba and Mendoza provinces in Argentina and western Rio Grande do Sul State in Brazil in 2018–19 that involved more than 200 scientists and students from the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. This campaign was motivated by the physical processes and societal impacts of deep convection that frequently initiates in this region, often along the complex terrain of the Sierras de Córdoba and Andes, and often grows rapidly upscale into dangerous storms that impact society. Observed storms during the experiment produced copious hail, intense flash flooding, extreme lightning flash rates, and other unusual lightning phenomena, but few tornadoes. The five distinct scientific foci of RELAMPAGO—convection initiation, severe weather, upscale growth, hydrometeorology, and lightning and electrification—are described, as are the deployment strategies to observe physical processes relevant to these foci. The campaign’s international cooperation, forecasting efforts, and mission planning strategies enabled a successful data collection effort. In addition, the legacy of RELAMPAGO in South America, including extensive multinational education, public outreach, and social media data gathering associated with the campaign, is summarized.

Full access
Francina Dominguez
,
Roy Rasmussen
,
Changhai Liu
,
Kyoko Ikeda
,
Andreas Prein
,
Adam Varble
,
Paola A. Arias
,
Julio Bacmeister
,
Maria Laura Bettolli
,
Patrick Callaghan
,
Leila M. V. Carvalho
,
Christopher L. Castro
,
Fei Chen
,
Divyansh Chug
,
Kwok Pan (Sun) Chun
,
Aiguo Dai
,
Luminita Danaila
,
Rosmeri Porfírio da Rocha
,
Ernani de Lima Nascimento
,
Erin Dougherty
,
Jimy Dudhia
,
Trude Eidhammer
,
Zhe Feng
,
Lluís Fita
,
Rong Fu
,
Julian Giles
,
Harriet Gilmour
,
Kate Halladay
,
Yongjie Huang
,
Angela Maylee Iza Wong
,
Miguel Ángel Lagos-Zúñiga
,
Charles Jones
,
Jorge Llamocca
,
Marta Llopart
,
J. Alejandro Martinez
,
J. Carlos Martinez
,
Justin R. Minder
,
Monica Morrison
,
Zachary L. Moon
,
Ye Mu
,
Richard B. Neale
,
Kelly M. Núñez Ocasio
,
Sujan Pal
,
Erin Potter
,
German Poveda
,
Franciano Puhales
,
Kristen L. Rasmussen
,
Amanda Rehbein
,
Rosimar Rios-Berrios
,
Christoforus Bayu Risanto
,
Alan Rosales
,
Lucia Scaff
,
Anton Seimon
,
Marcelo Somos-Valenzuela
,
Yang Tian
,
Peter Van Oevelen
,
Daniel Veloso-Aguila
,
Lulin Xue
, and
Timothy Schneider
Open access