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Evert I. F. de Bruijn
,
Fred C. Bosveld
,
Siebren de Haan
, and
Bert G. Heusinkveld

Abstract

A field experiment with a hot-air balloon was conducted in the vicinity of the meteorological observatory of Cabauw in The Netherlands. Recreational hot-air balloon flights contain useful wind information in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). On a yearly basis between 8000 and 9000 flights are taking place in The Netherlands, mainly during the morning and evening transition. An application (app) for smartphones has been developed to collect location data. We report about a feasibility study of a hot-air balloon experiment where we investigated the accuracy of the smartphone’s Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver using an accurate geodetic GNSS receiver as a reference. Further, we study the dynamic response of the hot-air balloon on variations in the wind by measuring the relative wind with a sonic anemometer, which is mounted below the gondola. The GNSS comparison reveals that smartphones equipped with a GNSS chip have in the horizontal plane an absolute position error standard deviation of 5 m, but their relative position error standard deviation is smaller. Therefore, the horizontal speeds, which are based on relative positions and a time step of 1 s, have standard deviations of σ u = 0.8 m s−1 and σ υ = 0.6 m s−1. The standard deviation in altitude is 12 m. We have validated the hot-air balloon derived wind data with observations from the Cabauw tower and the results are encouraging. We have studied the dynamics of a hot-air balloon. An empirical value of the response length has been found which accounts for the balloon’s inertia after a changing wind, and which compared favorable with the theoretical derived value. We have found a small but systematic movement of the hot-air balloon relative to the surrounding air. The model for the balloon dynamics has been refined to account for this so-called inertial drift.

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R. Boers
,
H. Klein Baltink
,
H. J. Hemink
,
F. C. Bosveld
, and
M. Moerman

Abstract

The development of a radiation fog layer at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (51.97°N, 4.93°E) on 23 March 2011 was observed with ground-based in situ and remote sensing observations to investigate the relationship between visibility and radar reflectivity. The fog layer thickness was less than 200 m. Radar reflectivity values did not exceed −25 dBZ even with visibilities less than 100 m. The onset and evaporation of fog produce different radar reflectivity–visibility relationships. The evolution of the fog layer was modeled with a droplet activation model that used the aerosol size distribution observed at the 60-m altitude tower level as input. Radar reflectivity and visibility were calculated from model drop size spectra using Mie scattering theory. Since radiative cooling rates are small in comparison with cooling rates due to adiabatic lift of aerosol-laden air, the modeled supersaturation remains low so that few aerosol particles are activated to cloud droplets. The modeling results suggest that the different radar reflectivity–visibility relationships are the result of differences in the interplay between water vapor and cloud droplets during formation and evaporation of the fog. During droplet activation, only a few large cloud droplets remain after successfully competing for water vapor with the smaller activated droplets. These small droplets eventually evaporate (deactivate) again. In the fog dissolution/evaporation stage, only these large droplet need to be evaporated. Therefore, to convert radar reflectivity to visibility for traffic safety products, knowledge of the state of local fog evolution is necessary.

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