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  • Author or Editor: F. Guichard x
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F. Guichard, D. Parsons, and E. Miller


Accurate measurements of atmospheric water vapor are crucial to many aspects of climate research and atmospheric science. This paper discusses some of the meteorological implications of a bias discovered in the measurement of water vapor in widely deployed radiosonde systems. This problem apparently arose in the early 1990s, and a correction scheme has been recently developed that intends to remove the bias. The correction scheme also includes improvements in the humidity measurements in the upper troposphere and near the surface. It has been applied to data taken during the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE).

The impact of the bias on the general stability of the tropical atmosphere to deep convection, as measured by the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the convective inhibition (CIN), is quite large. On the basis of the uncorrected dataset, one might erroneously conclude that it is difficult to trigger deep convection over the region. When the correction is taken into account, the atmosphere over the tropical western Pacific becomes typically unstable to deep convection, with convective instability similar to that measured from aircraft in the vicinity of active convective systems.

Radiative fluxes are also significantly modified. For clear sky conditions, it is found that on average, the net surface radiative flux increases by 4 W m−2, and the outgoing longwave flux decreases by more than 2 W m−2 due to the humidity correction. Under more realistic cloudy conditions, the differences are weaker but still significant. Changes in radiative fluxes are explained at first order by the precipitable water increase.

It is likely that such a dry bias would hide any modifications of the atmospheric water vapor associated with the increase of greenhouse gases.

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J. Barbier, F. Guichard, D. Bouniol, F. Couvreux, and R. Roehrig


In the Sahel very high temperatures prevail in spring, but little is known about heat waves in this region at that time of year. This study documents Sahelian heat waves with a new methodology that allows selecting heat waves at specific spatiotemporal scales and can be used in other parts of the world. It is applied separately to daily maximum and minimum temperatures, as they lead to the identification of distinct events. Synoptic–intraseasonal Sahelian heat waves are characterized from March to July over the period 1950–2012 with the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature (BEST) gridded dataset. Morphological and temperature-related characteristics of the selected heat waves are presented. From March to July, the further into the season, the shorter and the less frequent the heat waves become. From 1950 to 2012, these synoptic–intraseasonal heat waves do not tend to be more frequent; however, they become warmer, and this trend follows the Sahelian climatic trend. Compared to other commonly used indices, the present index tends to select heat waves with more uniform intensities. This comparison of indices also underlined the importance of the heat index definition on the estimated climatic heat wave trends in a changing climate. Finally, heat waves were identified with data from three meteorological reanalyses: ERA-Interim, MERRA, and NCEP-2. The spreads in temperature variabilities, seasonal cycles, and trends among reanalyses lead to differences in the characteristics, interannual variability, and climatic trends of heat waves, with fewer departures from BEST for ERA-Interim.

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