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Xiaogang He
,
Ming Pan
,
Zhongwang Wei
,
Eric F. Wood
, and
Justin Sheffield
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Xiaogang He
,
Ming Pan
,
Zhongwang Wei
,
Eric F. Wood
, and
Justin Sheffield

Abstract

Hydrological extremes, in the form of droughts and floods, have impacts on a wide range of sectors including water availability, food security, and energy production. Given continuing large impacts of droughts and floods and the expectation for significant regional changes projected in the future, there is an urgent need to provide estimates of past events and their future risk, globally. However, current estimates of hydrological extremes are not robust and accurate enough, due to lack of long-term data records, standardized methods for event identification, geographical inconsistencies, and data uncertainties. To tackle these challenges, this article presents the development of the first Global Drought and Flood Catalogue (GDFC) for 1950–2016 by merging the latest in situ and remote sensing datasets with state-of-the-art land surface and hydrodynamic modeling to provide a continuous and consistent estimate of the terrestrial water cycle and its extremes. This GDFC also includes an unprecedented level of detailed analysis of drought and large-scale flood events using univariate and multivariate risk assessment frameworks, which incorporates regional spatial–temporal characteristics (i.e., duration, spatial extent, severity) and global hazard maps for different return periods. This Catalogue forms a basis for analyzing the changing risk of droughts and floods and can underscore national and international climate change assessments and provide a key reference for climate change studies and climate model evaluations. It also contributes to the growing interests in multivariate and compounding risk analysis.

Free access
Hylke E. Beck
,
Eric F. Wood
,
Ming Pan
,
Colby K. Fisher
,
Diego G. Miralles
,
Albert I. J. M. van Dijk
,
Tim R. McVicar
, and
Robert F. Adler

Abstract

We present Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation, version 2 (MSWEP V2), a gridded precipitation P dataset spanning 1979–2017. MSWEP V2 is unique in several aspects: i) full global coverage (all land and oceans); ii) high spatial (0.1°) and temporal (3 hourly) resolution; iii) optimal merging of P estimates based on gauges [WorldClim, Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily (GHCN-D), Global Summary of the Day (GSOD), Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), and others], satellites [Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Gridded Satellite (GridSat), Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B42RT)], and reanalyses [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim) and Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55)]; iv) distributional bias corrections, mainly to improve the P frequency; v) correction of systematic terrestrial P biases using river discharge Q observations from 13,762 stations across the globe; vi) incorporation of daily observations from 76,747 gauges worldwide; and vii) correction for regional differences in gauge reporting times. MSWEP V2 compares substantially better with Stage IV gauge–radar P data than other state-of-the-art P datasets for the United States, demonstrating the effectiveness of the MSWEP V2 methodology. Global comparisons suggest that MSWEP V2 exhibits more realistic spatial patterns in mean, magnitude, and frequency. Long-term mean P estimates for the global, land, and ocean domains based on MSWEP V2 are 955, 781, and 1,025 mm yr−1, respectively. Other P datasets consistently underestimate P amounts in mountainous regions. Using MSWEP V2, P was estimated to occur 15.5%, 12.3%, and 16.9% of the time on average for the global, land, and ocean domains, respectively. MSWEP V2 provides unique opportunities to explore spatiotemporal variations in P, improve our understanding of hydrological processes and their parameterization, and enhance hydrological model performance.

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Yuan Yang
,
Ming Pan
,
Peirong Lin
,
Hylke E. Beck
,
Zhenzhong Zeng
,
Dai Yamazaki
,
Cédric H. David
,
Hui Lu
,
Kun Yang
,
Yang Hong
, and
Eric F. Wood

Abstract

Better understanding and quantification of river floods for very local and “flashy” events calls for modeling capability at fine spatial and temporal scales. However, long-term discharge records with a global coverage suitable for extreme events analysis are still lacking. Here, grounded on recent breakthroughs in global runoff hydrology, river modeling, high-resolution hydrography, and climate reanalysis, we developed a 3-hourly river discharge record globally for 2.94 million river reaches during the 40-yr period of 1980–2019. The underlying modeling chain consists of the VIC land surface model (0.05°, 3-hourly) that is well calibrated and bias corrected and the RAPID routing model (2.94 million river and catchment vectors), with precipitation input from MSWEP and other meteorological fields downscaled from ERA5. Flood events (above 2-yr return) and their characteristics (number, spatial distribution, and seasonality) were extracted and studied. Validations against 3-hourly flow records from 6,000+ gauges in CONUS and daily records from 14,000+ gauges globally show good modeling performance across all flow ranges, good skills in reconstructing flood events (high extremes), and the benefit of (and need for) subdaily modeling. This data record, referred as Global Reach-Level Flood Reanalysis (GRFR), is publicly available at https://www.reachhydro.org/home/records/grfr.

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Laura L. Pan
,
Kenneth P. Bowman
,
Elliot L. Atlas
,
Steve C. Wofsy
,
Fuqing Zhang
,
James F. Bresch
,
Brian A. Ridley
,
Jasna V. Pittman
,
Cameron R. Homeyer
,
Pavel Romashkin
, and
William A. Cooper

The Stratosphere–Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport 2008 (START08) experiment investigated a number of important processes in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) using the National Science Foundation (NSF)–NCAR Gulfstream V (GV) research aircraft. The main objective was to examine the chemical structure of the extratropical UTLS in relation to dynamical processes spanning a range of scales. The campaign was conducted during April–June 2008 from Broomfield, Colorado. A total of 18 research flights sampled an extensive geographical region of North America (25°–65°N, 80°–120°W) and a wide range of meteorological conditions. The airborne in situ instruments measured a comprehensive suite of chemical constituents and microphysical variables from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere, with flights specifically designed to target key transport processes in the extratropical UTLS. The flights successfully investigated stratosphere–troposphere exchange (STE) processes, including the intrusion of tropospheric air into the stratosphere in association with the secondary tropopause and the intrusion of stratospheric air deep into the troposphere. The flights also sampled the influence of convective transport and lightning on the upper troposphere as well as the distribution of gravity waves associated with multiple sources, including fronts and topography. The aircraft observations are complemented by satellite observations and modeling. The measurements will be used to improve the representation of UTLS chemical gradients and transport in Chemistry–Climate models (CCMs). This article provides an overview of the experiment design and selected observational highlights.

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Luis Samaniego
,
Stephan Thober
,
Niko Wanders
,
Ming Pan
,
Oldrich Rakovec
,
Justin Sheffield
,
Eric F. Wood
,
Christel Prudhomme
,
Gwyn Rees
,
Helen Houghton-Carr
,
Matthew Fry
,
Katie Smith
,
Glenn Watts
,
Hege Hisdal
,
Teodoro Estrela
,
Carlo Buontempo
,
Andreas Marx
, and
Rohini Kumar

Abstract

Simulations of water fluxes at high spatial resolution that consistently cover historical observations, seasonal forecasts, and future climate projections are key to providing climate services aimed at supporting operational and strategic planning, and developing mitigation and adaptation policies. The End-to-end Demonstrator for improved decision-making in the water sector in Europe (EDgE) is a proof-of-concept project funded by the Copernicus Climate Change Service program that addresses these requirements by combining a multimodel ensemble of state-of-the-art climate model outputs and hydrological models to deliver sectoral climate impact indicators (SCIIs) codesigned with private and public water sector stakeholders from three contrasting European countries. The final product of EDgE is a water-oriented information system implemented through a web application. Here, we present the underlying structure of the EDgE modeling chain, which is composed of four phases: 1) climate data processing, 2) hydrological modeling, 3) stakeholder codesign and SCII estimation, and 4) uncertainty and skill assessments. Daily temperature and precipitation from observational datasets, four climate models for seasonal forecasts, and five climate models under two emission scenarios are consistently downscaled to 5-km spatial resolution to ensure locally relevant simulations based on four hydrological models. The consistency of the hydrological models is guaranteed by using identical input data for land surface parameterizations. The multimodel outputs are composed of 65 years of historical observations, a 19-yr ensemble of seasonal hindcasts, and a century-long ensemble of climate impact projections. These unique, high-resolution hydroclimatic simulations and SCIIs provide an unprecedented information system for decision-making over Europe and can serve as a template for water-related climate services in other regions.

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THE TERRAIN-INDUCED ROTOR EXPERIMENT

A Field Campaign Overview Including Observational Highlights

Vanda Grubišić
,
James D. Doyle
,
Joachim Kuettner
,
Stephen Mobbs
,
Ronald B. Smith
,
C. David Whiteman
,
Richard Dirks
,
Stanley Czyzyk
,
Stephen A. Cohn
,
Simon Vosper
,
Martin Weissmann
,
Samuel Haimov
,
Stephan F. J. De Wekker
,
Laura L. Pan
, and
Fotini Katopodes Chow

The Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) is a coordinated international project, composed of an observational field campaign and a research program, focused on the investigation of atmospheric rotors and closely related phenomena in complex terrain. The T-REX field campaign took place during March and April 2006 in the lee of the southern Sierra Nevada in eastern California. Atmospheric rotors have been traditionally defined as quasi-two-dimensional atmospheric vortices that form parallel to and downwind of a mountain ridge under conditions conducive to the generation of large-amplitude mountain waves. Intermittency, high levels of turbulence, and complex small-scale internal structure characterize rotors, which are known hazards to general aviation. The objective of the T-REX field campaign was to provide an unprecedented comprehensive set of in situ and remotely sensed meteorological observations from the ground to UTLS altitudes for the documentation of the spatiotemporal characteristics and internal structure of a tightly coupled system consisting of an atmospheric rotor, terrain-induced internal gravity waves, and a complex terrain boundary layer. In addition, T-REX had several ancillary objectives including the studies of UTLS chemical distribution in the presence of mountain waves and complex-terrain boundary layer in the absence of waves and rotors. This overview provides a background of the project including the information on its science objectives, experimental design, and observational systems, along with highlights of key observations obtained during the field campaign.

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N. L. Miller
,
A. W. King
,
M. A. Miller
,
E. P. Springer
,
M. L. Wesely
,
K. E. Bashford
,
M. E. Conrad
,
K. Costigan
,
P. N. Foster
,
H. K. Gibbs
,
J. Jin
,
J. Klazura
,
B. M. Lesht
,
M. V. Machavaram
,
F. Pan
,
J. Song
,
D. Troyan
, and
R. A. Washington-Allen

A Department of Energy (DOE) multilaboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the feasibility of observational water budget closure. An extensive database of local meteorological time series and land surface characteristics was compiled. Numerical simulations of water budget components were generated and, to the extent possible, validated for three nested domains within the Southern Great Plains—the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (CART), the Walnut River watershed (WRW), and the Whitewater watershed (WW), in Kansas.

A 2-month intensive observation period (IOP) was conducted to gather extensive observations relevant to specific details of the water budget, including finescale precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture measurements that were not made routinely by other programs. Event and seasonal water isotope (d18O, dD) sampling in rainwater, streams, soils, lakes, and wells provided a means of tracing sources and sinks within and external to the WW, WRW, and the ARM CART domains. The WCPS measured changes in the leaf area index for several vegetation types, deep groundwater variations at two wells, and meteorological variables at a number of sites in the WRW. Additional activities of the WCPS include code development toward a regional climate model that includes water isotope processes, soil moisture transect measurements, and water-level measurements in groundwater wells.

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Z. Q. Li
,
H. Xu
,
K. T. Li
,
D. H. Li
,
Y. S. Xie
,
L. Li
,
Y. Zhang
,
X. F. Gu
,
W. Zhao
,
Q. J. Tian
,
R. R. Deng
,
X. L. Su
,
B. Huang
,
Y. L. Qiao
,
W. Y. Cui
,
Y. Hu
,
C. L. Gong
,
Y. Q. Wang
,
X. F. Wang
,
J. P. Wang
,
W. B. Du
,
Z. Q. Pan
,
Z. Z. Li
, and
D. Bu

Abstract

An overview of Sun–Sky Radiometer Observation Network (SONET) measurements in China is presented. Based on observations at 16 distributed SONET sites in China, atmospheric aerosol parameters are acquired via standardization processes of operational measurement, maintenance, calibration, inversion, and quality control implemented since 2010. A climatology study is performed focusing on total columnar atmospheric aerosol characteristics, including optical (aerosol optical depth, ÅngstrÖm exponent, fine-mode fraction, single-scattering albedo), physical (volume particle size distribution), chemical composition (black carbon; brown carbon; fine-mode scattering component, coarse-mode component; and aerosol water), and radiative properties (aerosol radiative forcing and efficiency). Data analyses show that aerosol optical depth is low in the west but high in the east of China. Aerosol composition also shows significant spatial and temporal variations, leading to noticeable diversities in optical and physical property patterns. In west and north China, aerosols are generally affected by dust particles, while monsoon climate and human activities impose remarkable influences on aerosols in east and south China. Aerosols in China exhibit strong light-scattering capability and result in significant radiative cooling effects.

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L. L. Pan
,
E. L. Atlas
,
R. J. Salawitch
,
S. B. Honomichl
,
J. F. Bresch
,
W. J. Randel
,
E. C. Apel
,
R. S. Hornbrook
,
A. J. Weinheimer
,
D. C. Anderson
,
S. J. Andrews
,
S. Baidar
,
S. P. Beaton
,
T. L. Campos
,
L. J. Carpenter
,
D. Chen
,
B. Dix
,
V. Donets
,
S. R. Hall
,
T. F. Hanisco
,
C. R. Homeyer
,
L. G. Huey
,
J. B. Jensen
,
L. Kaser
,
D. E. Kinnison
,
T. K. Koenig
,
J.-F. Lamarque
,
C. Liu
,
J. Luo
,
Z. J. Luo
,
D. D. Montzka
,
J. M. Nicely
,
R. B. Pierce
,
D. D. Riemer
,
T. Robinson
,
P. Romashkin
,
A. Saiz-Lopez
,
S. Schauffler
,
O. Shieh
,
M. H. Stell
,
K. Ullmann
,
G. Vaughan
,
R. Volkamer
, and
G. Wolfe

Abstract

The Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) experiment was conducted from Guam (13.5°N, 144.8°E) during January–February 2014. Using the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V research aircraft, the experiment investigated the photochemical environment over the tropical western Pacific (TWP) warm pool, a region of massive deep convection and the major pathway for air to enter the stratosphere during Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter. The new observations provide a wealth of information for quantifying the influence of convection on the vertical distributions of active species. The airborne in situ measurements up to 15-km altitude fill a significant gap by characterizing the abundance and altitude variation of a wide suite of trace gases. These measurements, together with observations of dynamical and microphysical parameters, provide significant new data for constraining and evaluating global chemistry–climate models. Measurements include precursor and product gas species of reactive halogen compounds that impact ozone in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. High-accuracy, in situ measurements of ozone obtained during CONTRAST quantify ozone concentration profiles in the upper troposphere, where previous observations from balloonborne ozonesondes were often near or below the limit of detection. CONTRAST was one of the three coordinated experiments to observe the TWP during January–February 2014. Together, CONTRAST, Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), and Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST), using complementary capabilities of the three aircraft platforms as well as ground-based instrumentation, provide a comprehensive quantification of the regional distribution and vertical structure of natural and pollutant trace gases in the TWP during NH winter, from the oceanic boundary to the lower stratosphere.

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