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Ming Pan
and
Eric F. Wood

Abstract

Part I of this series of studies developed procedures to implement the multiscale filtering algorithm for land surface hydrology and performed assimilation experiments with rainfall ensembles from a climate model. However, a most important application of the multiscale technique is to assimilate satellite-based remote sensing observations into a land surface model—and this has not been realized. This paper focuses on enabling the multiscale assimilation system to use remotely sensed precipitation data. The major challenge is the generation of a rainfall ensemble given one satellite rainfall map. An acceptable rainfall ensemble must contain a proper multiscale spatial correlation structure, and each ensemble member presents a realistic rainfall process in both space and time. A pattern-based sampling approach is proposed, in which random samples are drawn from a historical rainfall database according to the pattern of the satellite rainfall and then a cumulative distribution function matching procedure is applied to ensure the proper statistics for the pixel-level rainfall intensity. The assimilation system is applied using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission real-time satellite rainfall over the Red–Arkansas River basin. Results show that the ensembles so generated satisfy the requirements for spatial correlation and realism and the multiscale assimilation works reasonably well. A number of limitations also exist in applying this generation method, mainly stemming from the high dimensionality of the problem and the lack of historical records.

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Ming Pan
and
Eric F. Wood

Abstract

A procedure is developed to incorporate equality constraints in Kalman filters, including the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), and is referred to as the constrained ensemble Kalman filter (CEnKF). The constraint is carried out as a two-step filtering approach, with the first step being the standard (ensemble) Kalman filter. The second step is the constraint step carried out by another Kalman filter that optimally redistributes any imbalance from the first step. The CEnKF is implemented over a 75 000 km2 domain in the southern Great Plains region of the United States, using the terrestrial water balance as the constraint. The observations, consisting of gridded fields of the upper two soil moisture layers from the Oklahoma Mesonet system, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (ARM-CART) energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) latent heat estimates, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow from unregulated basins, are assimilated into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model. The water balance was applied at the domain scale, and estimates of the water balance components for the domain are updated from the data assimilation step so as to assure closure.

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Di Tian
,
Ming Pan
, and
Eric F. Wood

Abstract

Land surface water and energy fluxes from the ensemble mean of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations of a Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) high-resolution climate model (AM2.5) were evaluated using offline simulations of a calibrated land surface model [Princeton Global Forcing (PGF)/VIC] and intercompared with three reanalysis datasets: MERRA-Land, ERA-Interim/Land, and CFSR. Using PGF/VIC as the reference, the AM2.5 precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff showed a global positive bias of ~0.44, ~0.27, and ~0.15 mm day−1, respectively. For the energy budget, while the AM2.5 net radiation agreed very well with the PGF/VIC, the AM2.5 improperly partitioned the net radiation, with the latent heat showing positive bias and sensible heat showing negative bias. The AM2.5 net radiation, latent heat, and sensible heat relative to the PGF/VIC had a global negative bias of ~1.42 W m−2, positive bias of ~7.8 W m−2, and negative bias of ~8.7 W m−2, respectively. The three reanalyses show greater biases in net radiation, likely due to the deficiencies in cloud parameterizations. At a regional scale, the biases of the AM2.5 water and energy budget components are mostly comparable to the three reanalyses and PGF/VIC. While the AM2.5 well simulated the actual values of water and energy fluxes, the temporal anomaly correlations of the three reanalyses with PGF/VIC were mostly greater than the AM2.5, partly due to the ensemble mean of the AM2.5 members averaging out the intrinsic variability of the land surface fluxes. The discrepancies among land surface model simulations, reanalyses, and high-resolution climate model simulations demonstrate the challenges in estimating and evaluating land surface hydrologic fluxes at regional-to-global scales.

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Niko Wanders
,
Stephan Thober
,
Rohini Kumar
,
Ming Pan
,
Justin Sheffield
,
Luis Samaniego
, and
Eric F. Wood

Abstract

Hydrological forecasts with a high temporal and spatial resolution are required to provide the level of information needed by end users. So far high-resolution multimodel seasonal hydrological forecasts have been unavailable due to 1) lack of availability of high-resolution meteorological seasonal forecasts, requiring temporal and spatial downscaling; 2) a mismatch between the provided seasonal forecast information and the user needs; and 3) lack of consistency between the hydrological model outputs to generate multimodel seasonal hydrological forecasts. As part of the End-to-End Demonstrator for Improved Decision Making in the Water Sector in Europe (EDgE) project commissioned by the Copernicus Climate Change Service (ECMWF), this study provides a unique dataset of seasonal hydrological forecasts derived from four general circulation models [CanCM4, GFDL Forecast-Oriented Low Ocean Resolution version of CM2.5 (GFDL-FLOR), ECMWF Season Forecast System 4 (ECMWF-S4), and Météo-France LFPW] in combination with four hydrological models [mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM), Noah-MP, PCRaster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB), and VIC]. The forecasts are provided at daily resolution, 6-month lead time, and 5-km spatial resolution over the historical period from 1993 to 2012. Consistency in hydrological model parameterization ensures an increased consistency in the hydrological forecasts. Results show that skillful discharge forecasts can be made throughout Europe up to 3 months in advance, with predictability up to 6 months for northern Europe resulting from the improved predictability of the spring snowmelt. The new system provides an unprecedented ensemble of seasonal hydrological forecasts with significant skill over Europe to support water management. This study highlights the potential advantages of multimodel based forecasting system in providing skillful hydrological forecasts.

Open access
Ming Pan
,
Eric F. Wood
,
Dennis B. McLaughlin
,
Dara Entekhabi
, and
Lifeng Luo

Abstract

The multiscale autoregressive (MAR) framework was introduced in the last decade to process signals that exhibit multiscale features. It provides the method for identifying the multiscale structure in signals and a filtering procedure, and thus is an efficient way to solve the optimal estimation problem for many high-dimensional dynamic systems. Later, an ensemble version of this multiscale filtering procedure, the ensemble multiscale filter (EnMSF), was developed for estimation systems that rely on Monte Carlo samples, making this technique suitable for a range of applications in geosciences. Following the prototype study that introduced EnMSF, a strategy is devised here to implement the multiscale method in a hydrologic data assimilation system, which runs a land surface model. Assimilation experiments are carried out over the Arkansas–Red River basin, located in the central United States (∼645 000 km2), using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with a computing grid of 1062 pixels. A synthetic data assimilation experiment is performed, driven by meteorological forcing fields downscaled from the ensemble forecasts made by the NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFS). The classic full-rank ensemble Kalman filter is used as the benchmark to evaluate the multiscale filter performance, and comparisons are also made with a horizontally uncoupled filter. It is demonstrated that the multiscale filter is able to closely approximate the full-rank solution with a low computational cost (∼1/20 of the full-rank filter) in an experiment in which the top-layer soil moisture is assimilated, whereas the horizontally uncoupled filter fails to approximate the full-rank solution.

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H. Lievens
,
A. Al Bitar
,
N. E. C. Verhoest
,
F. Cabot
,
G. J. M. De Lannoy
,
M. Drusch
,
G. Dumedah
,
H.-J. Hendricks Franssen
,
Y. Kerr
,
S. K. Tomer
,
B. Martens
,
O. Merlin
,
M. Pan
,
M. J. van den Berg
,
H. Vereecken
,
J. P. Walker
,
E. F. Wood
, and
V. R. N. Pauwels

Abstract

The Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission routinely provides global multiangular observations of brightness temperature TB at both horizontal and vertical polarization with a 3-day repeat period. The assimilation of such data into a land surface model (LSM) may improve the skill of operational flood forecasts through an improved estimation of soil moisture SM. To accommodate for the direct assimilation of the SMOS TB data, the LSM needs to be coupled with a radiative transfer model (RTM), serving as a forward operator for the simulation of multiangular and multipolarization top of the atmosphere TBs. This study investigates the use of the Variable Infiltration Capacity model coupled with the Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform for simulating SMOS TB observations over the upper Mississippi basin, United States. For a period of 2 years (2010–11), a comparison between SMOS TBs and simulations with literature-based RTM parameters reveals a basin-averaged bias of 30 K. Therefore, time series of SMOS TB observations are used to investigate ways for mitigating these large biases. Specifically, the study demonstrates the impact of the LSM soil moisture climatology in the magnitude of TB biases. After cumulative distribution function matching the SM climatology of the LSM to SMOS retrievals, the average bias decreases from 30 K to less than 5 K. Further improvements can be made through calibration of RTM parameters related to the modeling of surface roughness and vegetation. Consequently, it can be concluded that SM rescaling and RTM optimization are efficient means for mitigating biases and form a necessary preparatory step for data assimilation.

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