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  • Author or Editor: G. M. McFarquhar x
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Beat Schmid
,
Robert G. Ellingson
, and
Greg M. McFarquhar
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D. Baumgardner
,
S. J. Abel
,
D. Axisa
,
R. Cotton
,
J. Crosier
,
P. Field
,
C. Gurganus
,
A. Heymsfield
,
A. Korolev
,
M. Krämer
,
P. Lawson
,
G. McFarquhar
,
Z. Ulanowski
, and
J. Um

Abstract

Understanding the formation and evolution of ice in clouds requires detailed information on the size, shape, mass, and optical properties of individual cloud hydrometeors and their bulk properties over a broad range of atmospheric conditions. Since the 1960s, instrumentation and research aircraft have evolved, providing increasingly more accurate and larger quantities of data about cloud particle properties. In this chapter, the current status of electrical powered, in situ measurement systems are reviewed with respect to their strengths and weaknesses and their limitations and uncertainties are documented. There remain many outstanding challenges. These are summarized and accompanied by recommendations for moving forward through new developments that fill the remaining information gaps. Closing these gaps will remove the obstacles that continue to hinder our understanding of cloud processes in general and the evolution of ice in particular.

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A. Korolev
,
G. McFarquhar
,
P. R. Field
,
C. Franklin
,
P. Lawson
,
Z. Wang
,
E. Williams
,
S. J. Abel
,
D. Axisa
,
S. Borrmann
,
J. Crosier
,
J. Fugal
,
M. Krämer
,
U. Lohmann
,
O. Schlenczek
,
M. Schnaiter
, and
M. Wendisch

Abstract

Mixed-phase clouds represent a three-phase colloidal system consisting of water vapor, ice particles, and coexisting supercooled liquid droplets. Mixed-phase clouds are ubiquitous in the troposphere, occurring at all latitudes from the polar regions to the tropics. Because of their widespread nature, mixed-phase processes play critical roles in the life cycle of clouds, precipitation formation, cloud electrification, and the radiative energy balance on both regional and global scales. Yet, in spite of many decades of observations and theoretical studies, our knowledge and understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes remains incomplete. Mixed-phase clouds are notoriously difficult to represent in numerical weather prediction and climate models, and their description in theoretical cloud physics still presents complicated challenges. In this chapter, the current status of our knowledge on mixed-phase clouds, obtained from theoretical studies and observations, is reviewed. Recent progress, along with a discussion of problems and gaps in understanding the mixed-phase environment is summarized. Specific steps to improve our knowledge of mixed-phase clouds and their role in the climate and weather system are proposed.

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