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- Author or Editor: GEORGE OHRING x

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## Abstract

A nonstatistical method for obtaining ballistic densities directly from satellite radiance observations is derived. The method takes advantage of the fact that both the ballistic density and the satellite radiances depend upon weighted vertical integrals of the atmospheric temperature. Tests of the method on realistically simulated satellite radiances indicate root-mean-square retrieval errors of 1/4;â€“1/3; of the standard deviation of ballistic density for individual months. The method thus appears to be suitable for application to areas of the globe with a paucity of conventional radiosonde observations.

## Abstract

A nonstatistical method for obtaining ballistic densities directly from satellite radiance observations is derived. The method takes advantage of the fact that both the ballistic density and the satellite radiances depend upon weighted vertical integrals of the atmospheric temperature. Tests of the method on realistically simulated satellite radiances indicate root-mean-square retrieval errors of 1/4;â€“1/3; of the standard deviation of ballistic density for individual months. The method thus appears to be suitable for application to areas of the globe with a paucity of conventional radiosonde observations.

## Abstract

Nimbus-7 satellite observations are used to determine the relationship between the total longwave radiation flux and the radiance in the 10-12 Î¼m infrared window. The total longwave fluxes are obtained from the earth radiation budget (ERB) narrow-field-of-view (NFOV) observations of total radiance; the IR window radiances are those measured by the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR). Regression equations are obtained relating the total flux equivalent brightness temperatures to the radiance equivalent brightness temperature of the IR window. These empirical equations are compared to similar regression equations based on radiative transfer calculations for a large sample of atmospheric soundings. The latter theoretical equations are used by NOAA in the processing of IR window observations from operational polar orbiting satellites to obtain total longwave flux estimates. The observational results indicate that there is a very high correlation between the flux equivalent brightness temperature and the IR window radiance equivalent brightness temperature, and that the former can indeed be determined from measurements of the latter, thus validating the general NOAA approach. Tests on independent data suggest that rms flux errors of âˆ¼11 w m^{âˆ’2} are to be expected for single applications of the empirical equations. The theoretical equations used by NOAA have an average positive bias of âˆ¼13 wm^{âˆ’2} or a relative bias of âˆ¼6% with respect to the ERB NFOV observations; the relative bias disappears at high flux values and increases with decreasing flux. A preliminary attempt to determine the cause of the discrepancy between the empirical and theoretical results indicates that a major factor may be the unrepresentativeness of the atmospheric soundings used in developing the theoretical regression coefficients.

## Abstract

Nimbus-7 satellite observations are used to determine the relationship between the total longwave radiation flux and the radiance in the 10-12 Î¼m infrared window. The total longwave fluxes are obtained from the earth radiation budget (ERB) narrow-field-of-view (NFOV) observations of total radiance; the IR window radiances are those measured by the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR). Regression equations are obtained relating the total flux equivalent brightness temperatures to the radiance equivalent brightness temperature of the IR window. These empirical equations are compared to similar regression equations based on radiative transfer calculations for a large sample of atmospheric soundings. The latter theoretical equations are used by NOAA in the processing of IR window observations from operational polar orbiting satellites to obtain total longwave flux estimates. The observational results indicate that there is a very high correlation between the flux equivalent brightness temperature and the IR window radiance equivalent brightness temperature, and that the former can indeed be determined from measurements of the latter, thus validating the general NOAA approach. Tests on independent data suggest that rms flux errors of âˆ¼11 w m^{âˆ’2} are to be expected for single applications of the empirical equations. The theoretical equations used by NOAA have an average positive bias of âˆ¼13 wm^{âˆ’2} or a relative bias of âˆ¼6% with respect to the ERB NFOV observations; the relative bias disappears at high flux values and increases with decreasing flux. A preliminary attempt to determine the cause of the discrepancy between the empirical and theoretical results indicates that a major factor may be the unrepresentativeness of the atmospheric soundings used in developing the theoretical regression coefficients.

## Abstract

To the extent that the stratosphere wind field is close to geostrophic, the thermal wind is a good approximation to the vertical wind shear (vertical variation of the horizontal wind). And since the thermal wind is proportional to the horizontal temperature gradient, the possibility exists of determining it from satellite radiance observations. Several different methods are developed here for retrieving thermal winds directly from the horizontal gradients of satellite radiance observations, without first retrieving the horizontal temperature gradient. The methods are applied to the determination of thermal winds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the White Sands Missile Range area. A special series of about 30 concurrent sets of radiance observations from the NDAA-4 VTPR instrument and wind shears from radiosonde observations (for ground truth) distributed throughout one year, is used for these tests. The results obtained with these direct methods are compared with results obtained with 1) a traditional method, in which temperature profiles are first retrieved from the satellite radiances and the thermal winds are then obtained from the horizontal gradients of the retrieved temperatures; and 2) a linear regression between observed radiance gradients and observed wind shears. The latter method serves as an estimate of the upper limit of accuracy to be obtained by any method based on a linear combination of radiance gradients.

The results indicate that the direct methods may be divided into two groups, with much better retrievals for one of these groups. The probable reasons for these differences are identified. The best direct methods yield results comparable to the traditional method. In comparison with ground truth none of the methods is particularly skillful. The lack of skill in these particular cases is attributed mainly to the modest wind shears contained in the sample. Errors associated with trying to measure relatively small horizontal radiance gradients over relatively small horizontal distances result in residual uncertainty nearly as large as the variance of the sample. it is suggested that much better results would be obtained if some of the better methods were to be applied over greater horizontal distances or to regions with larger wind shears.

## Abstract

To the extent that the stratosphere wind field is close to geostrophic, the thermal wind is a good approximation to the vertical wind shear (vertical variation of the horizontal wind). And since the thermal wind is proportional to the horizontal temperature gradient, the possibility exists of determining it from satellite radiance observations. Several different methods are developed here for retrieving thermal winds directly from the horizontal gradients of satellite radiance observations, without first retrieving the horizontal temperature gradient. The methods are applied to the determination of thermal winds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the White Sands Missile Range area. A special series of about 30 concurrent sets of radiance observations from the NDAA-4 VTPR instrument and wind shears from radiosonde observations (for ground truth) distributed throughout one year, is used for these tests. The results obtained with these direct methods are compared with results obtained with 1) a traditional method, in which temperature profiles are first retrieved from the satellite radiances and the thermal winds are then obtained from the horizontal gradients of the retrieved temperatures; and 2) a linear regression between observed radiance gradients and observed wind shears. The latter method serves as an estimate of the upper limit of accuracy to be obtained by any method based on a linear combination of radiance gradients.

The results indicate that the direct methods may be divided into two groups, with much better retrievals for one of these groups. The probable reasons for these differences are identified. The best direct methods yield results comparable to the traditional method. In comparison with ground truth none of the methods is particularly skillful. The lack of skill in these particular cases is attributed mainly to the modest wind shears contained in the sample. Errors associated with trying to measure relatively small horizontal radiance gradients over relatively small horizontal distances result in residual uncertainty nearly as large as the variance of the sample. it is suggested that much better results would be obtained if some of the better methods were to be applied over greater horizontal distances or to regions with larger wind shears.