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Lili Zeng, Gengxin Chen, Ke Huang, Ju Chen, Yunkai He, Fenghua Zhou, Yikai Yang, Zhanlin Liang, Qihua Peng, Rui Shi, Tilak Priyadarshana Gamage, Rongyu Chen, Jian Li, Zhenqiu Zhang, Zewen Wu, Linghui Yu, and Dongxio Wang


As an important part of the Indo-pacific warm pool, the Indian Ocean has great significance for research on the Asian monsoon system and global climate change. From the 1960s onwards, several international and regional programs have led to important new insights into the Indian Ocean. The eastern Tropical Indian Ocean Observation Network (TIOON) was established in 2010. The TIOON consists of two parts: large-scope observations and moored measurements. Large-scope observations are performed by the eastern tropical Indian Ocean Comprehensive Experiment Cruise (TIO-CEC). Moored measurements are executed by the TIOON mooring array and the hydrological meteorological buoy. By 2019, ten successful TIOON TIO-CEC voyages had been accomplished, making this mission the most comprehensive scientific investigation in China. The ten years of TIO-CEC voyages have collected approximately 1,006 temperature/salinity profiles, 703 GPS radiosonde profiles and numerous other observations in the Indian Ocean. To supplement the existing buoy array in the Indian Ocean, an enhanced TIOON mooring array consisting of eight sub-thermocline acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) moorings, was established since 2013. The TIOON mooring equipped with both upward-looking and downward-looking WHLS75K ADCP provide valuable current monitoring information to depth of 1,000 m in the Indian Ocean. To improve air-sea interaction monitoring, two real-time hydrological meteorological buoys were launched in 2019 and 2020 in the equatorial Indian Ocean. A better understanding of the Indian Ocean requires continuous and long-term observations. The TIOON program and other aspiring field investigation programs will be promoted in the future.

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