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Paul Joe, Chris Doyle, Al Wallace, Stewart G. Cober, Bill Scott, George A. Isaac, Trevor Smith, Jocelyn Mailhot, Brad Snyder, Stephane Belair, Quinton Jansen, and Bertrand Denis
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Dmitry Kiktev, Paul Joe, George A. Isaac, Andrea Montani, Inger-Lise Frogner, Pertti Nurmi, Benedikt Bica, Jason Milbrandt, Michael Tsyrulnikov, Elena Astakhova, Anastasia Bundel, Stéphane Bélair, Matthew Pyle, Anatoly Muravyev, Gdaly Rivin, Inna Rozinkina, Tiziana Paccagnella, Yong Wang, Janti Reid, Thomas Nipen, and Kwang-Deuk Ahn


The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) World Weather Research Programme’s (WWRP) Forecast and Research in the Olympic Sochi Testbed program (FROST-2014) was aimed at the advancement and demonstration of state-of-the-art nowcasting and short-range forecasting systems for winter conditions in mountainous terrain. The project field campaign was held during the 2014 XXII Olympic and XI Paralympic Winter Games and preceding test events in Sochi, Russia. An enhanced network of in situ and remote sensing observations supported weather predictions and their verification. Six nowcasting systems (model based, radar tracking, and combined nowcasting systems), nine deterministic mesoscale numerical weather prediction models (with grid spacings down to 250 m), and six ensemble prediction systems (including two with explicitly simulated deep convection) participated in FROST-2014. The project provided forecast input for the meteorological support of the Sochi Olympic Games. The FROST-2014 archive of winter weather observations and forecasts is a valuable information resource for mesoscale predictability studies as well as for the development and validation of nowcasting and forecasting systems in complex terrain. The resulting innovative technologies, exchange of experience, and professional developments contributed to the success of the Olympics and left a post-Olympic legacy.

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