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  • Author or Editor: George N. Kiladis x
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Robert Schafer
Susan K. Avery
Kenneth S. Gage
, and
George N. Kiladis


UHF (boundary layer) and VHF (troposphere–stratosphere) wind profilers have operated at Christmas Island (2°N, 157°W) in the central equatorial Pacific from 1986 to 2002. Observed profiles of winds are sparse over the tropical oceans, but these are critical for understanding convective organization and the interaction of convection and waves. While the zonal winds below about 10 km have previously shown good agreement with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis (RI), significant differences were found above a height of 10 km that were attributed to the low detectability of the wind signal in the profiler observations. Meridional winds at all levels show less agreement, with differences attributed to errors of representativeness and the sparseness of observations in the region. This paper builds on previous work using the Christmas Island wind profilers and presents the results of reprocessing the 17-yr profiler record with techniques that enhance the detectability of the signal at upper heights. The results are compared with nearby rawinsonde soundings obtained during a special campaign at Christmas Island and the RI, NCEP–Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis (RII), and the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40). The newly processed profiler zonal and meridional wind observations show good agreement with rawinsonde observations from 0.5 to 19 km above sea level, with difference statistics similar to other studies. There is also significant improvement in the agreement of RI and RII reanalysis and profiler upper-level zonal and meridional winds from previous studies. A comparison of RII and ERA-40 reanalysis shows that difference statistics between the reanalyses are similar in magnitude to differences between the profiler and the individual reanalyses.

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