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Jiarui Dong, Mike Ek, Dorothy Hall, Christa Peters-Lidard, Brian Cosgrove, Jeff Miller, George Riggs, and Youlong Xia


Understanding and quantifying satellite-based, remotely sensed snow cover uncertainty are critical for its successful utilization. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover errors have been previously recognized to be associated with factors such as cloud contamination, snowpack grain sizes, vegetation cover, and topography; however, the quantitative relationship between the retrieval errors and these factors remains elusive. Joint analysis of the MODIS fractional snow cover (FSC) from Collection 6 (C6) and in situ air temperature and snow water equivalent measurements provides a unique look at the error structure of the MODIS C6 FSC products. Analysis of the MODIS FSC dataset over the period from 2000 to 2005 was undertaken over the continental United States (CONUS) with an extensive observational network. When compared to MODIS Collection 5 (C5) snow cover area, the MODIS C6 FSC product demonstrates a substantial improvement in detecting the presence of snow cover in Nevada [30% increase in probability of detection (POD)], especially in the early and late snow seasons; some improvement over California (10% POD increase); and a relatively small improvement over Colorado (2% POD increase). However, significant spatial and temporal variations in accuracy still exist, and a proxy is required to adequately predict the expected errors in MODIS C6 FSC retrievals. A relationship is demonstrated between the MODIS FSC retrieval errors and temperature over the CONUS domain, captured by a cumulative double exponential distribution function. This relationship is shown to hold for both in situ and modeled daily mean air temperature. Both of them are useful indices in filtering out the misclassification of MODIS snow cover pixels and in quantifying the errors in the MODIS C6 product for various hydrological applications.

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Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, David Mocko, Rolf Reichle, Yuqiong Liu, Kristi R. Arsenault, Youlong Xia, Michael Ek, George Riggs, Ben Livneh, and Michael Cosh


The accurate knowledge of soil moisture and snow conditions is important for the skillful characterization of agricultural and hydrologic droughts, which are defined as deficits of soil moisture and streamflow, respectively. This article examines the influence of remotely sensed soil moisture and snow depth retrievals toward improving estimates of drought through data assimilation. Soil moisture and snow depth retrievals from a variety of sensors (primarily passive microwave based) are assimilated separately into the Noah land surface model for the period of 1979–2011 over the continental United States, in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) configuration. Overall, the assimilation of soil moisture and snow datasets was found to provide marginal improvements over the open-loop configuration. Though the improvements in soil moisture fields through soil moisture data assimilation were barely at the statistically significant levels, these small improvements were found to translate into subsequent small improvements in simulated streamflow. The assimilation of snow depth datasets were found to generally improve the snow fields, but these improvements did not always translate to corresponding improvements in streamflow, including some notable degradations observed in the western United States. A quantitative examination of the percentage drought area from root-zone soil moisture and streamflow percentiles was conducted against the U.S. Drought Monitor data. The results suggest that soil moisture assimilation provides improvements at short time scales, both in the magnitude and representation of the spatial patterns of drought estimates, whereas the impact of snow data assimilation was marginal and often disadvantageous.

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