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Gregory S. Poulos and Sean P. Burns

Abstract

High-rate near-surface overnight atmospheric data taken during the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99) is used to quantify the representativeness of surface layer formulations under statically stable conditions. Combined with weak wind shear, such conditions generate large dynamic stability (Ri > 1.0), intermittency, and nonstationarity, which violate the underlying assumptions of surface layer theory. Still, such parameterizations are applied in atmospheric numerical models from large-eddy to global circulation.

To investigate two formulas, their parameterized sensible heat flux and friction velocity (u∗) values are compared, when driven by CASES-99 measurements, to CASES-99 measurements of the same from various heights. Significant inaccuracies in the magnitude and sign of flux are found with 1) a frequent, large underprediction of heat flux for Rib > ∼1.0, 2) an overprediction of negative sensible heat flux and u∗ for ∼0.2 < Rib < ∼0.8, 3) a systematic underprediction of u∗ for Rib > 1.0 for one of the schemes tested, and 4) a misrepresentation of natural heat and u∗ intermittency by both schemes for Ri > ∼1.0. Failures of the “constant flux assumption” for a given height are proposed as a partial source for the errors. Using experimental data, a surface layer of O[1–10] m is found during dynamically stable conditions. Rather than suggest a revised algebraic fit to the observations, an alternate approach to surface layer parameterization is proposed.

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Chin-Hoh Moeng, Gregory S. Poulos, and Margaret A. LeMone
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Gregory S. Poulos, James E. Bossert, Thomas B. McKee, and Roger A. Pielke Sr.

Abstract

Via numerical analysis of detailed simulations of an early September 1993 case night, the authors develop a conceptual model of the interaction of katabatic flow in the nocturnal boundary layer with mountain waves (MKI). A companion paper (Part I) describes the synoptic and mesoscale observations of the case night from the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) experiment and idealized numerical simulations that manifest components of the conceptual model of MKI presented herein. The reader is also referred to Part I for detailed scientific background and motivation.

The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and nonlinear since the amplitude, wavelength, and vertical structure of the mountain-wave system developed by flow over the barrier owes some portion of its morphology to the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Simultaneously, katabatic flows are impacted by the topographically induced gravity wave evolution, which may include significantly changing wavelength, amplitude, flow magnitude, and wave breaking behavior. In addition to effects caused by turbulence (including scouring), perturbations to the leeside gravity wave structure at altitudes physically distant from the surface-based katabatic flow layer can be reflected in the katabatic flow by transmission through the atmospheric column. The simulations show that the evolution of atmospheric structure aloft can create local variability in the surface pressure gradient force governing katabatic flow. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the meso-β due to evolution of the mountain-wave system on the order of one hour, and on the microscale due to rapid wave evolution (short wavelength) and wave breaking–induced fluctuations. It is proposed that the MKI mechanism explains a portion of the variability in observational records of katabatic flow.

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Gregory S. Poulos, James E. Bossert, Thomas B. McKee, and Roger A. Pielke

Abstract

The mutual interaction of katabatic flow in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) and topographically forced gravity waves is investigated. Due to the nonlinear nature of these phenomena, analysis focuses on information obtained from the 1993 Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain field program held at the mountain–canyon–plains interface near Eldorado Canyon, Colorado, and idealized simulations. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by dynamic pressure effects. Based on a local Froude number climatology, case study analysis, and the simulations, the dynamic pressure effect is theorized to occur as gravity wave pressure perturbations are transmitted through the atmospheric column to the surface and, through altered horizontal pressure gradient forcing, to the surface-based katabatic flows. It is proposed that these perturbations are a routine feature in the atmospheric record and represent a significant portion of the variability in complex terrain katabatic flows.

The amplitude, wavelength, and vertical structure of mountain waves caused by flow over a barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving structure of the NBL in which the drainage flows develop. For Froude number Fr > ∼0.5 the mountain wave flow is found to separate from the surface at higher altitudes with NBL evolution (increasing time exposed to radiational cooling), as is expected from Fr considerations. However, flow with Fr < ∼0.5 behaves unexpectedly. In this regime, the separation point descends downslope with NBL evolution. Overall, a highly complicated, mutually evolving, system of mountain wave–katabatic flow interaction is found, such that the two flow phenomena are, at times, indistinguishable. The mechanisms described here are expanded upon in a companion paper through realistic numerical simulations and analysis of a nocturnal case study (3–4 September 1993).

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