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  • Author or Editor: Guy G. Goyer x
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Guy G. Goyer
and
George S. Handler

Abstract

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Guy G. Goyer
and
Myron N. Plooster

Abstract

A cloud of small supercooled water droplets was subjected to shock waves of reproducible intensity in the laboratory. Nucleation of freezing occurred only when the gas driving the shock waves was cooled to −37C or below by adiabatic expansion and subsequently mixed with the droplet-bearing air. Passage of the shock wave did not produce nucleation of the cloud. Results of a numerical model of a lightning discharge show, in the pressure wave from a lightning discharge, that the degree of cooling by adiabatic expansion is probably too small to produce ice crystals by homogeneous nucleation.

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Sonia N. Gitlin
,
Guy G. Goyer
, and
Thomas J. Henderson

Abstract

Calorimetric measurements of hailstones in Kenya, Africa, showed that 57% of the samples contained no water; these hailstones were described as hard. The average water content for the remaining samples was 4.2% almost all of these had a clear outer shell of soft ice. In Colorado and South Dakota, liquid water content of hailstones from five storms tended to decrease from an average of 14.6% for soft, small, opaque hailstones collected in June, to 0.4% for large, mostly clear hailstones collected in August.

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