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  • Author or Editor: H. E. Brindley x
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society x
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L. Palchetti
,
H. Brindley
,
R. Bantges
,
S. A. Buehler
,
C. Camy-Peyret
,
B. Carli
,
U. Cortesi
,
S. Del Bianco
,
G. Di Natale
,
B. M. Dinelli
,
D. Feldman
,
X. L. Huang
,
L. C.-Labonnote
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Q. Libois
,
T. Maestri
,
M. G. Mlynczak
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J. E. Murray
,
H. Oetjen
,
M. Ridolfi
,
M. Riese
,
J. Russell
,
R. Saunders
, and
C. Serio

Abstract

The outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) emitted to space is a fundamental component of the Earth’s energy budget. There are numerous, entangled physical processes that contribute to OLR and that are responsible for driving, and responding to, climate change. Spectrally resolved observations can disentangle these processes, but technical limitations have precluded accurate space-based spectral measurements covering the far infrared (FIR) from 100 to 667 cm−1 (wavelengths between 15 and 100 µm). The Earth’s FIR spectrum is thus essentially unmeasured even though at least half of the OLR arises from this spectral range. The region is strongly influenced by upper-tropospheric–lower-stratospheric water vapor, temperature lapse rate, ice cloud distribution, and microphysics, all critical parameters in the climate system that are highly variable and still poorly observed and understood. To cover this uncharted territory in Earth observations, the Far-Infrared Outgoing Radiation Understanding and Monitoring (FORUM) mission has recently been selected as ESA’s ninth Earth Explorer mission for launch in 2026. The primary goal of FORUM is to measure, with high absolute accuracy, the FIR component of the spectrally resolved OLR for the first time with high spectral resolution and radiometric accuracy. The mission will provide a benchmark dataset of global observations which will significantly enhance our understanding of key forcing and feedback processes of the Earth’s atmosphere to enable more stringent evaluation of climate models. This paper describes the motivation for the mission, highlighting the scientific advances that are expected from the new measurements.

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J. E. Harries
,
J. E. Russell
,
J. A. Hanafin
,
H. Brindley
,
J. Futyan
,
J. Rufus
,
S. Kellock
,
G. Matthews
,
R. Wrigley
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A. Last
,
J. Mueller
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R. Mossavati
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J. Ashmall
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E. Sawyer
,
D. Parker
,
M. Caldwell
,
P M. Allan
,
A. Smith
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M. J. Bates
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B. Coan
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B. C. Stewart
,
D. R. Lepine
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L. A. Cornwall
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D. R. Corney
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M. J. Ricketts
,
D. Drummond
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D. Smart
,
R. Cutler
,
S. Dewitte
,
N. Clerbaux
,
L. Gonzalez
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A. Ipe
,
C. Bertrand
,
A. Joukoff
,
D. Crommelynck
,
N. Nelms
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D. T. Llewellyn-Jones
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G. Butcher
,
G. L. Smith
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Z. P Szewczyk
,
P E. Mlynczak
,
A. Slingo
,
R. P. Allan
, and
M. A. Ringer

This paper reports on a new satellite sensor, the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment. GERB is designed to make the first measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from geostationary orbit. Measurements at high absolute accuracy of the reflected sunlight from the Earth, and the thermal radiation emitted by the Earth are made every 15 min, with a spatial resolution at the subsatellite point of 44.6 km (north–south) by 39.3 km (east–west). With knowledge of the incoming solar constant, this gives the primary forcing and response components of the top-of-atmosphere radiation. The first GERB instrument is an instrument of opportunity on Meteosat-8, a new spin-stabilized spacecraft platform also carrying the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared (SEVIRI) sensor, which is currently positioned over the equator at 3.5°W. This overview of the project includes a description of the instrument design and its preflight and in-flight calibration. An evaluation of the instrument performance after its first year in orbit, including comparisons with data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensors and with output from numerical models, are also presented. After a brief summary of the data processing system and data products, some of the scientific studies that are being undertaken using these early data are described. This marks the beginning of a decade or more of observations from GERB, as subsequent models will fly on each of the four Meteosat Second Generation satellites.

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Bruce A. Wielicki
,
D. F. Young
,
M. G. Mlynczak
,
K. J. Thome
,
S. Leroy
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J. Corliss
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J. G. Anderson
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C. O. Ao
,
R. Bantges
,
F. Best
,
K. Bowman
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H. Brindley
,
J. J. Butler
,
W. Collins
,
J. A. Dykema
,
D. R. Doelling
,
D. R. Feldman
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N. Fox
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X. Huang
,
R. Holz
,
Y. Huang
,
Z. Jin
,
D. Jennings
,
D. G. Johnson
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K. Jucks
,
S. Kato
,
D. B. Kirk-Davidoff
,
R. Knuteson
,
G. Kopp
,
D. P. Kratz
,
X. Liu
,
C. Lukashin
,
A. J. Mannucci
,
N. Phojanamongkolkij
,
P. Pilewskie
,
V. Ramaswamy
,
H. Revercomb
,
J. Rice
,
Y. Roberts
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C. M. Roithmayr
,
F. Rose
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S. Sandford
,
E. L. Shirley
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Sr. W. L. Smith
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B. Soden
,
P. W. Speth
,
W. Sun
,
P. C. Taylor
,
D. Tobin
, and
X. Xiong

The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5–50 μm), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320–2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a “NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit.” CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

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