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N. R. P. Harris
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L. J. Carpenter
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J. D. Lee
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G. Vaughan
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M. T. Filus
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R. L. Jones
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B. OuYang
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J. A. Pyle
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A. D. Robinson
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S. J. Andrews
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A. C. Lewis
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J. Minaeian
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A. Vaughan
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J. R. Dorsey
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M. W. Gallagher
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M. Le Breton
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R. Newton
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C. J. Percival
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H. M. A. Ricketts
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S. J.-B. Bauguitte
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G. J. Nott
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A. Wellpott
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M. J. Ashfold
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J. Flemming
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R. Butler
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P. I. Palmer
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P. H. Kaye
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C. Stopford
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C. Chemel
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H. Boesch
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N. Humpage
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A. Vick
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A. R. MacKenzie
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R. Hyde
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P. Angelov
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E. Meneguz
, and
A. J. Manning

Abstract

The main field activities of the Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign took place in the west Pacific during January–February 2014. The field campaign was based in Guam (13.5°N, 144.8°E), using the U.K. Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 atmospheric research aircraft, and was coordinated with the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) project with an unmanned Global Hawk and the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) campaign with a Gulfstream V aircraft. Together, the three aircraft were able to make detailed measurements of atmospheric structure and composition from the ocean surface to 20 km. These measurements are providing new information about the processes influencing halogen and ozone levels in the tropical west Pacific, as well as the importance of trace-gas transport in convection for the upper troposphere and stratosphere. The FAAM aircraft made a total of 25 flights in the region between 1°S and 14°N and 130° and 155°E. It was used to sample at altitudes below 8 km, with much of the time spent in the marine boundary layer. It measured a range of chemical species and sampled extensively within the region of main inflow into the strong west Pacific convection. The CAST team also made ground-based measurements of a number of species (including daily ozonesondes) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea (2.1°S, 147.4°E). This article presents an overview of the CAST project, focusing on the design and operation of the west Pacific experiment. It additionally discusses some new developments in CAST, including flights of new instruments on board the Global Hawk in February–March 2015.

Open access
S. I. Bohnenstengel
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S. E. Belcher
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A. Aiken
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J. D. Allan
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G. Allen
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A. Bacak
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T. J. Bannan
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J. F. Barlow
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D. C. S. Beddows
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W. J. Bloss
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A. M. Booth
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C. Chemel
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O. Coceal
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C. F. Di Marco
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M. K. Dubey
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K. H. Faloon
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Z. L. Fleming
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M. Furger
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J. K. Gietl
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R. R. Graves
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D. C. Green
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C. S. B. Grimmond
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C. H. Halios
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J. F. Hamilton
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R. M. Harrison
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M. R. Heal
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D. E. Heard
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C. Helfter
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S. C. Herndon
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R. E. Holmes
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J. R. Hopkins
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A. M. Jones
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F. J. Kelly
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S. Kotthaus
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B. Langford
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J. D. Lee
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R. J. Leigh
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A. C. Lewis
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R. T. Lidster
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F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker
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J. B. McQuaid
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C. Mohr
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P. S. Monks
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E. Nemitz
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N. L. Ng
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C. J. Percival
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A. S. H. Prévôt
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H. M. A. Ricketts
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R. Sokhi
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D. Stone
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J. A. Thornton
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A. H. Tremper
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A. C. Valach
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S. Visser
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L. K. Whalley
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L. R. Williams
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L. Xu
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D. E. Young
, and
P. Zotter

Abstract

Air quality and heat are strong health drivers, and their accurate assessment and forecast are important in densely populated urban areas. However, the sources and processes leading to high concentrations of main pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particulate matter, in complex urban areas are not fully understood, limiting our ability to forecast air quality accurately. This paper introduces the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo; www.clearflo.ac.uk) project’s interdisciplinary approach to investigate the processes leading to poor air quality and elevated temperatures.

Within ClearfLo, a large multi-institutional project funded by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), integrated measurements of meteorology and gaseous, and particulate composition/loading within the atmosphere of London, United Kingdom, were undertaken to understand the processes underlying poor air quality. Long-term measurement infrastructure installed at multiple levels (street and elevated), and at urban background, curbside, and rural locations were complemented with high-resolution numerical atmospheric simulations. Combining these (measurement–modeling) enhances understanding of seasonal variations in meteorology and composition together with the controlling processes. Two intensive observation periods (winter 2012 and the Summer Olympics of 2012) focus upon the vertical structure and evolution of the urban boundary layer; chemical controls on nitrogen dioxide and ozone production—in particular, the role of volatile organic compounds; and processes controlling the evolution, size, distribution, and composition of particulate matter. The paper shows that mixing heights are deeper over London than in the rural surroundings and that the seasonality of the urban boundary layer evolution controls when concentrations peak. The composition also reflects the seasonality of sources such as domestic burning and biogenic emissions.

Full access
J. E. Harries
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J. E. Russell
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J. A. Hanafin
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H. Brindley
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J. Futyan
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J. Rufus
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S. Kellock
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G. Matthews
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R. Wrigley
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A. Last
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J. Mueller
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R. Mossavati
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J. Ashmall
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E. Sawyer
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D. Parker
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M. Caldwell
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P M. Allan
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A. Smith
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M. J. Bates
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B. Coan
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B. C. Stewart
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D. R. Lepine
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L. A. Cornwall
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D. R. Corney
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M. J. Ricketts
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D. Drummond
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D. Smart
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R. Cutler
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S. Dewitte
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N. Clerbaux
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L. Gonzalez
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A. Ipe
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C. Bertrand
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A. Joukoff
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D. Crommelynck
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N. Nelms
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D. T. Llewellyn-Jones
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G. Butcher
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G. L. Smith
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Z. P Szewczyk
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P E. Mlynczak
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A. Slingo
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R. P. Allan
, and
M. A. Ringer

This paper reports on a new satellite sensor, the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment. GERB is designed to make the first measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from geostationary orbit. Measurements at high absolute accuracy of the reflected sunlight from the Earth, and the thermal radiation emitted by the Earth are made every 15 min, with a spatial resolution at the subsatellite point of 44.6 km (north–south) by 39.3 km (east–west). With knowledge of the incoming solar constant, this gives the primary forcing and response components of the top-of-atmosphere radiation. The first GERB instrument is an instrument of opportunity on Meteosat-8, a new spin-stabilized spacecraft platform also carrying the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared (SEVIRI) sensor, which is currently positioned over the equator at 3.5°W. This overview of the project includes a description of the instrument design and its preflight and in-flight calibration. An evaluation of the instrument performance after its first year in orbit, including comparisons with data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensors and with output from numerical models, are also presented. After a brief summary of the data processing system and data products, some of the scientific studies that are being undertaken using these early data are described. This marks the beginning of a decade or more of observations from GERB, as subsequent models will fly on each of the four Meteosat Second Generation satellites.

Full access