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  • Author or Editor: H. M. van den Dool x
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H. M. Van Den Dool
and
L. Rukhovets

Abstract

A scheme to optimally weight the members of an ensemble of forecasts is discussed in the framework of calculating an as accurate as possible ensemble average. Results show, relative to a single member, a considerably improved 500-mb height forecast in the 6–10-day range for the Northern Hemisphere. The improvement is nontrivial and cannot be explained from simple smoothing. This method is used in operations at the National Meteorological Center.

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Ming Cai
,
Chul-Su Shin
,
H. M. van den Dool
,
Wanqiu Wang
,
S. Saha
, and
A. Kumar

Abstract

This paper analyzes long-term surface air temperature trends in a 25-yr (1982–2006) dataset of retrospective seasonal climate predictions made by the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS), a model that has its atmospheric greenhouse gases fixed at the 1988 concentration level. Although the CFS seasonal forecasts tend to follow the observed interannual variability very closely, there exists a noticeable time-dependent discrepancy between the CFS forecasts and observations, with a warm model bias before 1988 and a cold bias afterward except for a short-lived warm bias during 1992–94. The trend from warm to cold biases is likely caused by not including the observed increase in the anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the CFS, whereas the warm bias in 1992–94 reflects the absence of the anomalous aerosols released by the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption. Skill analysis of the CFS seasonal climate predictions with and without the warming trend suggests that the 1997–98 El Niño event contributes significantly to the record-breaking global warmth in 1998 whereas the record-breaking warm decade since 2000 is mainly due to the effects of the increased greenhouse gases. Implications for operational seasonal prediction will be discussed.

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