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  • Author or Editor: H. Russchenberg x
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R. Baedi
,
R. Boers
, and
H. Russchenberg

Abstract

A model for the radar reflectivity of boundary layer water clouds is constructed using cloud droplet spectra fitted to a truncated gamma distribution. The spectra were derived from several recent field experiments. Realistic space-based radar returns are simulated that take into account the pulse shape, digitization interval, averaging volume, and variations in droplet concentration, cloud depth, and cloud-top height. The results show that the long pulse length of the proposed radar is responsible for smearing out the real reflectivity spatially so that the space-based detected clouds occupy a volume far exceeding that of the “observed” cloud. However, the effect of smearing is reduced by the limited receiver sensitivity. Cloud volume of boundary layer clouds is overestimated by between 30% and 100% using proposed radar parameters. Even if clouds are detected, the radar reflectivity convoluted by the pulse shape is sufficiently different from the originally observed reflectivity to seriously impede the retrieval of accurate cloud liquid water content.

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Ulrich Löhnert
,
S. Crewell
,
O. Krasnov
,
E. O’Connor
, and
H. Russchenberg

Abstract

This paper describes advances in ground-based thermodynamic profiling of the lower troposphere through sensor synergy. The well-documented integrated profiling technique (IPT), which uses a microwave profiler, a cloud radar, and a ceilometer to simultaneously retrieve vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and liquid water content (LWC) of nonprecipitating clouds, is further developed toward an enhanced performance in the boundary layer and lower troposphere. For a more accurate temperature profile, this is accomplished by including an elevation scanning measurement modus of the microwave profiler. Height-dependent RMS accuracies of temperature (humidity) ranging from ∼0.3 to 0.9 K (0.5–0.8 g m−3) in the boundary layer are derived from retrieval simulations and confirmed experimentally with measurements at distinct heights taken during the 2005 International Lindenberg Campaign for Assessment of Humidity and Cloud Profiling Systems and its Impact on High-Resolution Modeling (LAUNCH) of the German Weather Service. Temperature inversions, especially of the lower boundary layer, are captured in a very satisfactory way by using the elevation scanning mode. To improve the quality of liquid water content measurements in clouds the authors incorporate a sophisticated target classification scheme developed within the European cloud observing network CloudNet. It allows the detailed discrimination between different types of backscatterers detected by cloud radar and ceilometer. Finally, to allow IPT application also to drizzling cases, an LWC profiling method is integrated. This technique classifies the detected hydrometeors into three different size classes using certain thresholds determined by radar reflectivity and/or ceilometer extinction profiles. By inclusion into IPT, the retrieved profiles are made consistent with the measurements of the microwave profiler and an LWC a priori profile. Results of IPT application to 13 days of the LAUNCH campaign are analyzed, and the importance of integrated profiling for model evaluation is underlined.

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D. N. Moisseev
,
V. Chandrasekar
,
C. M. H. Unal
, and
H. W. J. Russchenberg

Abstract

Dual-polarization radar observations of precipitation depend on size–shape relations of raindrops. There are several studies presented in literature dedicated to the investigation of this relation. In this work a new approach of investigating raindrop size–shape relation on short time and spatial scales from radar observations is presented. The presented method is based on the use of dual-polarization Doppler power spectral analysis. By measuring complete Doppler spectra at a sufficiently high elevation angle at two polarization settings, namely, horizontal and vertical, it is possible to retrieve drop size distribution (DSD) parameters, ambient air velocity, spectral broadening, and the slope of the assumed linear dependence of raindrop size–shape relation.

This paper is mainly focused on the development of the retrieval algorithm and analysis of its performance. As a part of the proposed method an efficient algorithm for DSD parameter retrieval was developed. It is shown that the DSD parameter retrieval method, which usually requires the solution of five-parameter nonlinear optimization problems, can be simplified to a three-parameter nonlinear least squares problem.

Furthermore, the performance of the proposed retrieval technique is illustrated on the dual-polarization measurements collected by the S-band Transportable Atmospheric Radar (TARA) at Cabauw, Netherlands, and by the Colorado State University–University of Chicago–Illinois State Water Survey (CSU–CHILL) radar from Greeley, Colorado.

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Dmitri N. Moisseev
,
Christine M. H. Unal
,
Herman W. J. Russchenberg
, and
Leo P. Ligthart

Abstract

Polarization properties of radar waves that are scattered from atmospheric objects are of great interest in meteorological studies. However, polarimetric radar measurements are often not sufficiently accurate for retrieving physical properties of targets. To compensate for errors, radar polarimetric calibration is applied. Typical calibrations are performed based on measurements of point targets with known scattering matrices located in the boresight of the antenna. Such calibration takes into account the polarization state of the antenna pattern only at one point. Since radar measurements of atmospheric phenomena involve distributed targets that fill the full antenna beam, point target radar calibrations are inadequate for meteorological studies.

This paper explains in detail the effects of the complete antenna patterns on weather echoes. It is shown that the conventional polarimetric calibration can be significantly improved by incorporating light-rain (<20 dBZ) zenith-pointing measurements into the calibration procedure. As a result, the sensitivity of cross-polar measurements can be improved by 7 dB on average. Also it is shown that the bias in co-cross-polar correlation coefficient can be reduced.

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Lukas Pfitzenmaier
,
Yann Dufournet
,
Christine M. H. Unal
, and
Herman W. J. Russchenberg

Abstract

The interaction of ice crystals with supercooled liquid droplets in mixed-phase clouds leads to an enhanced growth of ice particles. However, such processes are still not clearly understood although they are important processes for precipitation formation in midlatitudes. To better understand how ice particles grow within such clouds, changes in the microphysical parameters of a particle population falling through the cloud have to be analyzed. The Transportable Atmospheric Radar (TARA) can retrieve the full 3D Doppler velocity vector based on a unique three-beam configuration. Using the derived wind information, a new fall streak retrieval technique is proposed so that microphysical changes along those streaks can be studied. The method is based on Doppler measurements only. The shown examples measured during the Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques (ACCEPT) campaign demonstrate that the retrieval is able to capture the fall streaks within different cloud systems. These fall streaks can be used to study changes in a single particle population from its generation (at cloud top) until its disintegration. In this study fall streaks are analyzed using radar moments or Doppler spectra. Synergetic measurements with other instruments during ACCEPT allow the detection of liquid layers within the clouds. The estimated microphysical information is used here to get a better understanding of the influence of supercooled liquid layers on ice crystal growth. This technique offers a new perspective for cloud microphysical studies.

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A. C. P. Oude Nijhuis
,
C. M. H. Unal
,
O. A. Krasnov
,
H. W. J. Russchenberg
, and
A. G. Yarovoy

Abstract

In this article, five velocity-based energy dissipation rate (EDR) retrieval techniques are assessed. The EDR retrieval techniques are applied to Doppler measurements from Transportable Atmospheric Radar (TARA)—a precipitation profiling radar—operating in the vertically fixed-pointing mode. A generalized formula for the Kolmogorov constant is derived, which gives potential for the application of the EDR retrieval techniques to any radar line of sight (LOS). Two case studies are discussed that contain rain events of about 2 and 18 h, respectively. The EDR values retrieved from the radar are compared to in situ EDR values from collocated sonic anemometers. For the two case studies, a correlation coefficient of 0.79 was found for the wind speed variance (WSV) EDR retrieval technique, which uses 3D wind vectors as input and has a total sampling time of 10 min. From this comparison it is concluded that the radar is able to measure EDR with a reasonable accuracy. Almost no correlation was found for the vertical wind velocity variance (VWVV) EDR retrieval technique, as it was not possible to sufficiently separate the turbulence dynamics contribution to the radar Doppler mean velocities from the velocity contribution of falling raindrops. An important cause of the discrepancies between radar and in situ EDR values is thus due to insufficient accurate estimation of vertical air velocities.

Open access
A. L. J. Spek
,
C. M. H. Unal
,
D. N. Moisseev
,
H. W. J. Russchenberg
,
V. Chandrasekar
, and
Y. Dufournet

Abstract

In this study, a dual-polarization spectral analysis for retrieval of microphysical properties of ice hydrometeors is developed. It is shown that, by using simultaneous Doppler polarimetric observations taken at a 45° elevation angle, it is possible to discriminate between different types of ice particles. Particle size distribution parameters for maximally two dominating types of ice particles (aggregates and plates) observed above the melting layer are retrieved. Prior to the retrieval algorithm, a selection of possible types of ice particles based on environmental conditions is carried out. The retrieval procedure is based on a least squares optimization that simultaneously minimizes fit residuals in a Doppler power spectrum and spectral differential reflectivity. The proposed method is illustrated on transportable atmospheric radar (TARA) observations of stratiform rain collected on 19 September 2001 at Cabauw, Netherlands.

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