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H. Tennekes

Three-dimensional turbulence occurs mainly in convective clouds and in the atmospheric boundary layer. Two-dimensional turbulence is a model for the statistical features of large-scale flows in the atmosphere. The differences between two- and three-dimensional turbulence are discussed, with a minimum of mathematics, in terms of elementary vorticity dynamics. The influence of the microstructure on the evolution of the large-scale features of the flow field is explored in some detail. A simple rationale is given for ignoring subgrid scale fluxes in numerical weather prediction.

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A. G. M. Driedonks
and
H. Tennekes

A general review is given of the characteristic problems encountered in the parameterization of the atmospheric boundary layer in large-scale models. Only those parameterizations that interact with the large-scale flow are considered. Two aspects are especially important and require further study: the interaction of the boundary layer with clouds and the use of integrated parameterizations instead of a multilevel treatment. It is also necessary to carry out further experiments in order to evaluate the effect of a particular parameterization on the results of large-scale simulations or forecasts.

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