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  • Author or Editor: HAROLD J. SMITH x
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Fred J. Kopp
,
Paul L. Smith
, and
Harold D. Orville

Abstract

A mathematical scheme is developed to compute the gradients of observations taken over complex terrain. The method is applied to an artificial example to demonstrate the scheme. An application is made to surface pressure observations between Little Rock, Arkansas, and Amarillo, Texas. Divergence computations are made with the scheme using observed wind data over the Black Hills of South Dakota.

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Paul L. Smith
,
Arnett S. Dennis
,
Bernard A. Silverman
,
Arlin B. Super
,
Edmond W. Holroyd III
,
William A. Cooper
,
Paul W. Mielke Jr.
,
Kenneth J. Berry
,
Harold D. Orville
, and
James R. Miller Jr.

Abstract

The design and conduct of HIPLEX-1, a randomized seeding experiment carried out on small cumulus congestus clouds in eastern Montana, are outlined. The seeding agent was dry ice, introduced in an effort to produce microphysical effects, especially the earlier formation of precipitation in the seeded clouds. The earlier formation was expected to increase both the probability and the amount of precipitation from those small clouds with short lifetimes. The experimental unit selection procedure, treatment and randomization procedures, the physical hypothesis, measurement procedures and the response variables defined for the experiment are discussed. Procedures used to calculate the response variables from aircraft and radar measurements are summarized and the values of those variables for the 20 HIPLEX-1 test cases from 1979 and 1980 are tabulated.

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