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  • Author or Editor: Hamid Norouzi x
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Yunxia Zhao
Hamid Norouzi
Marzi Azarderakhsh
, and
Amir AghaKouchak


Most previous studies of extreme temperatures have primarily focused on atmospheric temperatures. Using 18 years of the latest version of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) data, we globally investigate the spatial patterns of hot and cold extremes as well as diurnal temperature range (DTR). We show that the world’s highest LST of 80.8°C, observed in the Lut Desert in Iran and the Sonoran Desert in Mexico, is over 10°C above the previous global record of 70.7°C observed in 2005. The coldest place on Earth is Antarctica with the record low temperature of −110.9°C. The world’s maximum DTR of 81.8°C is observed in a desert environment in China. We see strong latitudinal patterns in hot and cold extremes as well as DTR. Biomes worldwide are faced with different levels of temperature extremes and DTR: we observe the highest zonal average maximum LST of 61.1° ± 5.3°C in the deserts and xeric shrublands; the lowest zonal average minimum LST of −66.6° ± 14.8°C in the tundra; and the highest zonal average maximum DTR of 43.5° ± 9.9°C in the montane grasslands and shrublands. This global exploration of extreme LST and DTR across different biomes sheds light on the type of extremes different ecosystems are faced with.

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