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  • Author or Editor: Hao Wang x
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Hao Wang and Eugene S. Takle

Abstract

A neutral boundary layer nonhydrostatic numerical model is used to determine the characteristics of shelterbelt effects on mean wind direction and to study the processing causing wind rotation when air passes through a shelterbelt. The model uses a turbulence scheme that includes prognostic equations for turbulence kinetic energy and a master length scale proposed by Mellor and Yamada. The simulated results are in quantitative agreement with Nord's field measurements. The spatial variation of wind rotation and its dependence on incident angle and shelterbelt porosity is analysed. Dynamic processes of the wind rotation and its interactions with drag force and pressure perturbation are also discussed. It is concluded that shear of wind direction should be considered, along with shear of speed, in determining turbulent fluxes in the vicinity of a shelterbelt.

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Hao Wang and E. S. Takle

Abstract

The authors report results of a numerical model used to simulate wind and turbulence fields for porous, living shelterbelts with seven different cross-sectional shapes. The simulations are consistent with results of Woodruff and Zingg whose wind-tunnel study demonstrated that all shelterbelts with very different shapes have nearly identical reduction of wind and turbulence. The simulations also showed that the pressure-loss (resistance) coefficient for smooth-shaped or streamlined shelterbelts is significantly smaller than that for rectangle-shaped or triangle-shaped shelterbelts with a windward vertical side. However, the shelter effects are not proportional to the pressure-loss coefficient (drag). Analysis of the momentum budget demonstrated that in the near lee and in the far lee, both vertical advection and pressure gradient have opposite roles in the recovery of wind speed. This behavior, combined with differences in permeability, is the likely cause of reduced sensitivity of shelter effects to shelterbelt shape.

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Tingting Han, Huijun Wang, Xin Hao, and Shangfeng Li

Abstract

Northeast China (NEC) has sustained economic losses in recent years because of extreme precipitation events. Despite many efforts, it remains very difficult to predict these extreme events. In this study, we documented the characteristics of extreme precipitation days (EPD) over NEC and established a seasonal prediction model using a year-to-year increment (DY) approach. The results show that most of the EPD over NEC occurred during midsummer, along with large values concentrated over the Greater and Lesser Khingan Mountains and Changbai Mountain. Two variables—the preceding early spring soil moisture DY over central Asia and the sea surface temperature DY in the tropical Atlantic Ocean—were used to construct the statistical model to predict the EPD DY over NEC. These two factors influenced the EPD by modulating the moisture transport over NEC. Cross-validation tests for the period from 1962 to 2016 and independent hindcasts for the period from 1997 to 2016 indicated that the two variables gave good predictions of the EPD over NEC. The observed and predicted year-to-year increments in EPD were well correlated, with a correlation coefficient of 0.65 for the period from 1962 to 2016 in the cross-validation test. In addition, the EPD DY covaried coherently with the midsummer precipitation amount DY over NEC, and those two predictors also gave good predictions for the midsummer precipitation amount over NEC. The correlation coefficient is 0.68 between the observed and predicted year-to-year increment in the amount of midsummer precipitation from 1962 to 2016 in a cross-validation test.

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Hao Hu, Yihong Duan, Yuqing Wang, and Xinghai Zhang

Abstract

The diurnal variation of rainfall over China associated with landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs) is investigated using hourly rain gauge observations obtained from 2425 conventional meteorological stations in China. Records between 12 h prior to landfall and 12 h after landfall of 450 landfalling TCs in China from 1957 to 2014 are selected as samples. The harmonic analysis shows an obvious diurnal signal in TC rainfall with a rain-rate peak in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. The diurnal cycle in the outer region (between 400- and 900-km radii from the storm center) is found to be larger than in the core region (within 400 km of the storm center). This could be attributed to the effect of land on the inner core of the storms as the diurnal cycle is distinct in the core region well before landfall. As the result of this diurnal cycle, TCs making landfall at night tend to have cumulative precipitation, defined as the precipitation cumulated from the time at landfall to 12 h after landfall, about 30% larger than those making landfall around noon or afternoon. Moreover, the radial propagation of the diurnal cycle in TC rain rate, which has been a controversial phenomenon in some previous studies with remote sensing observations, was not present in this study that is based on rain gauge observations. Results also show that the diurnal signal has little dependence on the storm intensity 12 h prior to landfall.

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