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Hao Huang, Kun Zhao, Guifu Zhang, Qing Lin, Long Wen, Gang Chen, Zhengwei Yang, Mingjun Wang, and Dongming Hu


Quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) with polarimetric radar measurements suffers from different sources of uncertainty. The variational approach appears to be a promising way to optimize the radar QPE statistically. In this study a variational approach is developed to quantitatively estimate the rainfall rate (R) from the differential phase (ΦDP). A spline filter is utilized in the optimization procedures to eliminate the impact of the random errors in ΦDP, which can be a major source of error in the specific differential phase (K DP)-based QPE. In addition, R estimated from the horizontal reflectivity factor (Z H) is used in the a priori with the error covariance matrix statistically determined. The approach is evaluated by an idealized case and multiple real rainfall cases observed by an operational S-band polarimetric radar in southern China. The comparative results demonstrate that with a proper range filter, the proposed variational radar QPE with the a priori included agrees well with the rain gauge measurements and proves to have better performance than the other three approaches, that is, the proposed variational approach without the a priori included, the variational approach proposed by Hogan, and the conventional power-law estimator-based approach.

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