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Yi Jin, Shouping Wang, Jason Nachamkin, James D. Doyle, Gregory Thompson, Lewis Grasso, Teddy Holt, Jon Moskaitis, Hao Jin, Richard M. Hodur, Qingyun Zhao, Ming Liu, and Mark DeMaria


The impact of ice phase cloud microphysical processes on prediction of tropical cyclone environment is examined for two microphysical parameterizations using the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System–Tropical Cyclone (COAMPS-TC) model. An older version of microphysical parameterization is a relatively typical single-moment scheme with five hydrometeor species: cloud water and ice, rain, snow, and graupel. An alternative newer method uses a hybrid approach of double moment in cloud ice and rain and single moment in the other three species. Basin-scale synoptic flow simulations point to important differences between these two schemes. The upper-level cloud ice concentrations produced by the older scheme are up to two orders of magnitude greater than the newer scheme, primarily due to differing assumptions concerning the ice nucleation parameterization. Significant (1°–2°C) warm biases near the 300-hPa level in the control experiments are not present using the newer scheme. The warm bias in the control simulations is associated with the longwave radiative heating near the base of the cloud ice layer. The two schemes produced different track and intensity forecasts for 15 Atlantic storms. Rightward cross-track bias and positive intensity bias in the control forecasts are significantly reduced using the newer scheme. Synthetic satellite imagery of Hurricane Igor (2010) shows more realistic brightness temperatures from the simulations using the newer scheme, in which the inner core structure is clearly discernible. Applying the synthetic satellite imagery in both quantitative and qualitative analyses helped to pinpoint the issue of excessive upper-level cloud ice in the older scheme.

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Dan Wu, Kun Zhao, Matthew R. Kumjian, Xiaomin Chen, Hao Huang, Mingjun Wang, Anthony C. Didlake Jr., Yihong Duan, and Fuqing Zhang


This study analyzes the microphysics of convective cells in an outer rainband of Typhoon Nida (2016) using data collected by a newly upgraded operational polarimetric radar in China. The life cycle of these convective cells is divided into three stages: developing, mature, and decaying according to the intensity of the corresponding updraft. Composite analysis shows that deep columns of Z DR and K DP collocate well with the enhanced updraft as the cells develop to their mature stage. A layered microphysical structure is observed in the ice region with riming near the −5°C level within the updraft, aggregation around the −15°C level, and deposition anywhere above the 0°C level. These ice-phase microphysical processes are important pathways of particle growth in the outer rainbands. In particular, riming contributes significantly to surface heavy rainfall. These contrast to previously documented inner rainbands, where warm-rain processes are the predominant pathway of particle growth.

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