Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 1 of 1 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Harold E. Brooks x
  • Weather, Climate, and Society x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Joshua J. Hatzis
Jennifer Koch
, and
Harold E. Brooks


In the hazards literature, a near-miss is defined as an event that had a nontrivial probability of causing loss of life or property but did not due to chance. Frequent near-misses can desensitize the public to tornado risk and reduce responses to warnings. Violent tornadoes rarely hit densely populated areas, but when they do they can cause substantial loss of life. It is unknown how frequently violent tornadoes narrowly miss a populated area. To address this question, this study looks at the spatial distribution of possible exposures of people to violent tornadoes in the United States. We collected and replicated tornado footprints for all reported U.S. violent tornadoes between 1995 and 2016, across a uniform circular grid, with a radius of 40 km and a resolution of 0.5 km, surrounding the centroid of the original footprint. We then estimated the number of people exposed to each tornado footprint using proportional allocation. We found that violent tornadoes tended to touch down in less populated areas with only 33.1% potentially impacting 5000 persons or more. Hits and near-misses were most common in the Southern Plains and Southeast United States with the highest risk in central Oklahoma and northern Alabama. Knowledge about the location of frequent near-misses can help emergency managers and risk communicators target communities that might be more vulnerable, due to an underestimation of tornado risk, for educational campaigns. By increasing educational efforts in these high-risk areas, it might be possible to improve local knowledge and reduce casualties when violent tornadoes do hit.

Full access