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Shu-Jeng Lin
Huang-Hsiung Hsu
Chia-Ying Tu
, and
Cheng-Hsiang Chih


We evaluated the ability of the fvGFS with a 13-km resolution in simulating tropical cyclone genesis (TCG) by conducting hindcast experiments for 42 TCG events over 2018–19 in the western North Pacific (WNP). We observed an improved hit rate with a lead time of between 5 and 4 days; however, from 4- to 3-day lead time, no consistent improvement in the temporal and spatial errors of TCG was obtained. More “Fail” cases occurred when and where a low-level easterly background flow prevailed: from mid-August to September 2018 and after October 2019 and mainly in the eastern WNP. In “Hit” cases, 850-hPa streamfunction and divergence, 200-hPa divergence, and genesis potential index (GPI) provided favorable TCG conditions. However, the Hit–Fail case differences in other suggested factors (vertical wind shear, 700-hPa moisture, and SST) were nonsignificant. By contrast, the reanalysis used for validation showed only significant difference in 850-hPa streamfunction. We stratified the background flow of TCG into four types. The monsoon trough type (82%) provided the most favorable environmental conditions for successful hindcasts, followed by the subtropical high (45%), easterly (17%), and others (0%) types. These results indicated that fvGFS is more capable of enhancing monsoon trough circulation and provides a much better environment for TCG development but is less skillful in other types of background flow that provides weaker large-scale forcing. The results suggest that the most advanced high-resolution weather forecast models such as the fvGFS warrant further improvement to properly simulate the subtle circulation features (e.g., mesoscale convection system) that might provide seeds for TCG.

Significance Statement

This study provides an evaluation of tropical cyclone genesis prediction skill of fvGFS. Favorable large-scale environmental factors for successful prediction are identified. Skill dependence on environmental factors provides guidance for evaluating the reliability of a genesis forecast in advance.

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