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Thomas J. Greenwald, R. Bradley Pierce, Todd Schaack, Jason Otkin, Marek Rogal, Kaba Bah, Allen Lenzen, Jim Nelson, Jun Li, and Hung-Lung Huang

Abstract

In support of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R series (GOES-R) program, the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin–Madison is generating high quality simulated Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) radiances and derived products in real time over the continental United States. These data are mainly used for testing data-handling systems, evaluating ABI-derived products, and providing training material for forecasters participating in GOES-R Proving Ground test bed activities. The modeling system used to generate these datasets consists of advanced regional and global numerical weather prediction models in addition to state-of-the-art radiative transfer models, retrieval algorithms, and land surface datasets. The system and its generated products are evaluated for the 2014 Pacific Northwest wildfires; the 2013 Moore, Oklahoma, tornado; and Hurricane Sandy. Simulated aerosol optical depth over the Front Range of Colorado during the Pacific Northwest wildfires was validated using high-density Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. The aerosol, cloud, and meteorological modeling system used to generate ABI radiances was found to capture the transport of smoke from the Pacific wildfires into the Front Range of Colorado and true-color imagery created from these simulated radiances provided visualization of the smoke plumes. Evaluation of selected simulated ABI-derived products for the Moore tornado and Hurricane Sandy cases was done using real-time GOES sounder/imager products produced at CIMSS. Results show that simulated ABI moisture and atmospheric stability products, cloud products, and red–green–blue (RGB) airmass composite imagery are well suited as proxy ABI data for user preparedness.

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Sid-Ahmed Boukabara, Vladimir Krasnopolsky, Stephen G. Penny, Jebb Q. Stewart, Amy McGovern, David Hall, John E. Ten Hoeve, Jason Hickey, Hung-Lung Allen Huang, John K. Williams, Kayo Ide, Philippe Tissot, Sue Ellen Haupt, Kenneth S. Casey, Nikunj Oza, Alan J. Geer, Eric S. Maddy, and Ross N. Hoffman

Abstract

Promising new opportunities to apply artificial intelligence (AI) to the Earth and environmental sciences are identified, informed by an overview of current efforts in the community. Community input was collected at the first National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) workshop on “Leveraging AI in the Exploitation of Satellite Earth Observations and Numerical Weather Prediction” held in April 2019. This workshop brought together over 400 scientists, program managers, and leaders from the public, academic, and private sectors in order to enable experts involved in the development and adaptation of AI tools and applications to meet and exchange experiences with NOAA experts. Paths are described to actualize the potential of AI to better exploit the massive volumes of environmental data from satellite and in situ sources that are critical for numerical weather prediction (NWP) and other Earth and environmental science applications. The main lessons communicated from community input via active workshop discussions and polling are reported. Finally, recommendations are presented for both scientists and decision-makers to address some of the challenges facing the adoption of AI across all Earth science.

Open access